Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
A teleprompter is a display device that prompts the person speaking with an electronic visual text of a speech or script. Using a teleprompter is similar to the practice of using cue cards. The screen is in front of the lens of the camera, and the words on the screen are reflected to the eyes of the speaker using a two-way mirror. As the speaker does not need to look down to consult written notes, he or she appears to have memorized the speech or be speaking spontaneously .
The first "teleprompters" were simply mechanical devices located near the camera. The script was printed on a paper scroll, which was advanced as the performer read.
As capitalized, TelePrompTer is the trade name used by the company which developed the electronic device. The TelePrompTer company was founded in the 1950s by Fred Barton , Hubert J. (Hub) Schlafly and Irving B. Khan . Barton was an actor who suggested the concept of the teleprompter as a means of assisting television performers who had to memorize large amounts of material in a short time.
Modern teleprompters for news programs are run from a personal computer, connected to video monitors on each camera. The monitors are often black-and-white monochrome, and have the vertical scanning reversed to compensate for the reflection of the mirror. A peripheral device attached to the serial port has a knob that can be turned to speed up or slow down the scrolling of the text. The text is usually displayed in white capital letters on a black background for the best readability, while cues are in inverse video (black on white). Difficult words (mainly foreign names) are spelled out phonetically, as are other particulars like "2-thousand-8" (to specify that the year 2008 should not be pronounced "twenty-oh-eight", for example).
Teleprompters are often used for speeches as well. In this case, the reflector is simply a clear and glossy piece of plastic on a thin telescoping stand. It is transparent so as not to block the view of the speaker by the audience or cameras, and plastic to avoid the weight and safety hazard of glass. Usually two of these are set up, one on either side of the podium (if there is one), so the speaker can look around at the audience and always be able to see one. Except for these aesthetic changes, they work the same as for television.
Teleprompters are sometimes used in concerts, to assist performers who have trouble remembering the words to songs. The teleprompter may be of the kind used in speeches, or may just be a monitor set into the stage floor. Notable singers who have regularly used teleprompters during concerts include Frank Sinatra, Bruce Springsteen, and Elton John.
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