Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Most Serene Republic of San Marino or San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino or San Marino) is one of the smallest nations in the world. Located in southern Europe, it is completely surrounded by Italy and has a population of less than 29,000 including 5,000 Sammarineses living in foreign countries and 1,000 foreigners living in San Marino.
| National motto: Libertas|
|Largest City||San Marino|
|Captains Regent:||Fausta Morganti and Cesare Gasperoni|
- % water
|Ranked 231st |
- Total (2000)
|Ranked 215th |
|Independence||3 September 301|
| Time zone |
- in summer
| CET (UTC+1)|
|National anthem||Inno Nazionale|
|Calling Code||+378 (+0549 from Italy)|
Main article: History of San Marino
San Marino claims to be the world's oldest republic still in existence, being founded in A.D. 301 by a skilled builder referred to as St. Marinus. Its written constitution was adopted on October 8, 1600. The tiny nation was recognised by Napoleon's France in 1797, and by the other European nations at the 1815 Congress of Vienna.
Main article: Politics of San Marino
The Consiglio Grande e Generale, or Grand and General Council, is elected by popular vote every five years. This parliament selects two of its members to serve as Regents for periods of six months. These regents are known as the Capitani Reggenti, or Ruling Captains. The Capitani Reggenti and the cabinet form the executive branch of the government.
The Council also elects the Consiglio dei XII (Council of Twelve), which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Council.
San Marino is divided into nine municipalities, known locally as castelli, that are also towns. See list of cities in San Marino.
Main article: Geography of San Marino
San Marino is an enclave in Italy, on the border between the regioni of Emilia-Romagna and Marche. Its topography is dominated by the Apennines mountain range, and it has a rugged terrain. The highest point in the country, Monte Titano , is situated at 749 m above sea level. There are no bodies of water of any significant size.
Main article: Economy of San Marino
Although San Marino is not an official European Union member, it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by virtue of arrangements with the council of the European Union; it is also granted the right to use its own designs on the national side of the euro coins. Before the Euro, the Sammarinese lira was coupled to and exchangeable with the Italian lira. The small number of Sammarinese euro coins, as was the case with the lire before it, are primarily of interest to coin collectors.
The tourist sector contributes over 50% of San Marino's GDP, with more than 3.3 million tourists visiting in 1997. The key industries are banking, electronics, and ceramics. The main agricultural products are wine and cheese.
The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
Being completely surrounded by Italy, there is no significant difference between the population of San Marino and Italy and many Italians live in San Marino.
Main article: Culture of San Marino
- Communications in San Marino
- Transportation in San Marino
- Military of San Marino
- Foreign relations of San Marino
- Visit San Marino - Official San Marino Tourism Site
- San Marino Site - A portal on San Marino, partly in English
- Musei di Stato della Repubblica di San Marino
- Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005 (2005). San Marino (country). Retrieved January 31, 2005.
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