Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Pulitzer Prize is a United States award regarded as the highest honor in print journalism. The award also honors literary achievements and musical compositions. The very first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded on June 4, 1917, and in recent times, they are announced each year, in the month of April.
Recipients of the award are chosen by an independent board officially administered by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism in the United States. The prize was established by Joseph Pulitzer, a Hungarian-American journalist and newspaper publisher in the late 19th century.
The name Pulitzer is often mispronounced as "pew-litser." The correct pronunciation, according to administrators of the prize, should sound like the phrase, "Pull it, sir."
Awards are given out in categories relating to journalism, arts and letters. Only published reports and photographs by United States-based newspapers or daily news organizations are eligible for the journalism prize.
These are the Pulitzer Prize category definitions in the 2004 competition:
- Beat Reporting - For a distinguished example of beat reporting characterized by sustained and knowledgeable coverage of a particular subject or activity.
- Breaking News Reporting - For a distinguished example of local reporting of breaking news.
- Breaking News Photography - For a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album.
- Commentary - For distinguished commentary.
- Criticism - For distinguished criticism.
- Editorial Cartooning - For a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and pictorial effect.
- Editorial Writing - For distinguished editorial writing , the test of excellence being clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer conceives to be the right direction.
- Explanatory Reporting - For a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear presentation.
- Feature Photography - For a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album.
- Feature Writing - For a distinguished example of feature writing giving prime consideration to high literary quality and originality.
- International Reporting - For a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence.
- Investigative Reporting - For a distinguished example of investigative reporting by an individual or team, presented as a single article or series.
- National Reporting - For a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs.
- Public Service - For a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper through the use of its journalistic resources which may include editorials, cartoons, and photographs, as well as reporting.
There are also five letters (books) categories:
- Biography or Autobiography - For a distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author.
- Fiction - For distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
- General Non-Fiction - For a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.
- History - For a distinguished book upon the history of the United States.
- Poetry - For a distinguished volume of original verse by an American author.
There are two other humanities categories that have been added:
There have also been a number of Special Citations and Awards.
In addition to the prizes, Pulitzer travelling fellowships are awarded to four outstanding students of the Graduate School of Journalism as selected by the faculty.
Over the years, awards have been discontinued either because they have been expanded, renamed, or made obsolete by technology. They include:
- Explanatory Journalism (became Explanatory Reporting)
- General News Reporting
- Local General Spot News Reporting
- Local Investigative Specialized Reporting
- Local Reporting
- Local Reporting, Edition Time
- Local Reporting, No Edition Time
- Telegraphic Reporting - International (became Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting)
- Telegraphic Reporting - National (became Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting)
- the Novel (became Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
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