Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. Prisons conventionally are institutions authorized by governments and forming part of a country's criminal justice system, or as facilities for holding prisoners of war. A prison system is the organizational arrangement of the provision and operation of prisons.
There are a variety of other names for prisons, such as a prison-house, penitentiary or jail (in British English, sometimes spelled gaol although pronounced in the same fashion). There are, too, many colloquial terms for prisons - such as beantown, can, clink, cooler, hoosegow, lockup, lockdown and slammer—and imprisonment—doing time, bird, porridge.
However, in the United States at least, jail is generally used for facilities where inmates are locked up for a relatively short time (either while awaiting trial or serving a sentence of one year or less upon conviction for a misdemeanor), while prison and penitentiary typically denote a place where inmates go to serve long terms after having been found guilty of a felony. In Massachusetts, some jails are known as houses of correction. In Washington some adult prisons are called reformatories, while in other states this is reserved as a term for a prison of the juvenile justice system.
Prisons in the criminal justice system
In the domain of criminal justice, prisons are used to incarcerate convicted criminals, but also to house those charged with or likely to be charged with offences. Custodial sentences are sanctions authorised by law for a range of offences. A court may order the incarceration of an individual found guilty of such offences. Individuals may also be committed to prison by a court before a trial, verdict or sentence, generally because the court determines that there is a risk to society or a risk of absconding prior to a trial; such pre-trial imprisonment is known as remand . The possibility and maximal duration of remand vary between jurisdictions.
The availability of incarceration as a sanction is designed to mitigate against the likelihood of individuals committing offences: thus prisons are in part about the punishment of individuals who transgress statutory boundaries. Prisons also can serve to protect by removing from society individuals likely to pose a risk to others. Prisons also can have a rehabilitative role in seeking to change the nature of individuals so as to reduce the probability that they will reoffend upon release.
The nature of prisons and of prison systems varies from country to country. Common though by no means universal attributes are segregation by sex, and by category of risk.
Crime and punishment is a wide, very controversial and deeply politicised area, and so too are discussions of prisons, prison systems, the concepts and practices of imprisonment; and the sanction of custody set against other non-custodial sanctions and against the capital sanction, a death sentence. Some of these issues are discussed in the by country descriptions, below.
Prisons form part of military systems, and are used variously to house prisoners of war, unlawful combatants, those whose freedom is deemed a national security risk by military or civilian authorities, and members of the military found guilty of a serious crime. See Military Prison.
Certain countries maintain or have in the past had a system of political prisons; arguably the gulags associated with Stalinism are best known. The definition of what is and is not a political crime and a political prison is, of course, highly controversial, and critics can be found to rebut the suggestion that any of the following are political prisons:
- The United Kingdom's HM Maze Prison at Long Kesh was used during the internment period in Northern Ireland to imprison suspected paramilitaries.
- Guantanamo Bay, established at the American military base in Cuba to house alleged Taliban and al-Qaeda personnel captured in Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere during the so-called War on terror in the 2000s.
World prison populations
Over nine million people are imprisoned worldwide. The prison population in most countries increased significantly beginning in the 1990's.
By country, the United States prison population is the world's largest in absolute terms, at more than 2 million; 70% of imprisonments are drug related. It is second largest in relative numbers with 701 people per 100,000 incarcerated; only in Rwanda, where as of 2002, over 100,000 people were held on suspicion of participation in the 1994 genocide, is the relative figure larger.
The UK had 73,000 inmates in its facilities in 2003, with France and Germany having a similar number. Each of both countries has approximately 1/5 of the population of the United States.
Prisons in the United Kingdom
For information on prisons and related subjects in the United Kingdom, see articles on Her Majesty's Prison Service, on the United Kingdom prison population and the List of United Kingdom prisons. Also see house arrest.
Prisons in the United States
- List of prisons
- Private prisons
- County jails
- Penal colony
- Prison abolition movement
- False imprisonment
- United States prison population
- Life imprisonment
- Hard labour
- Prison education
- Penal reform
- Anton Praetorius in 1613 was one of the first to describe the terrible situation of the prisoners and to protest against torture.
- Peter Kropotkin, "In Russian and French Prisons". Online book. This is a criticism about the prison existance.
- James (Jim} Bruton, Big House: Life Inside a Supermax Security Prison, Voyageur Press (July, 2004), hardcover, 192 pages, ISBN 0896580393
- George Jackson. George Jackson: George Jackson: Soledad brother.
- Ted Conover. Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing. Knopf, 2001. Trade paperback, 352 pages, ISBN 0375726624.
- Mark L. Taylor. The Executed God: The Way of the Cross in Lockdown America. Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0800632834.
- Wil S. Hylton. "Sick on the Inside: Correctional HMOs and the coming prison plague". Harper's Magazine, August 2003.
- Prisonmail: E-mail to mail service for families & friends of prisoners
- World Prison Population List (fourth edition)
- International Centre for Prison Studies at King's College, London
- The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica entry for "prison"
- (PDF) Full list of prisons in Germany
- Prison Literacy Programs
- Correctional Education and the Community College
- Prison Talk Online (discussion about prison related issues)
- Pictures and Stories from an Iowa Prison
- Innocent In Prison Project
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