Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Peter Edward Rose, Sr. (born April 14, 1941 in Cincinnati, Ohio), nicknamed Charlie Hustle, is an American former player and manager in Major League Baseball who played from 1963 to 1986, best known for his many years with the Cincinnati Reds. Rose, a switch hitter, is the all-time major league leader in hits (4256), games played (3562) and at bats (14,053). He won three World Series rings, three batting titles, one Most Valuable Player Award, two Gold Gloves, the Rookie of the Year Award, and made 18 All-Star appearances at an unequalled four different positions (2B, OF, 3B, 1B). In August 1989, Rose agreed to a lifetime ban from baseball amidst accusations that he gambled on baseball games while playing for and managing the Reds; in 2004 he admitted betting on games, but only those of other teams. The Baseball Hall of Fame subsequently specified that individuals who are banned from the sport are ineligible for induction; those who were banned had previously been excluded by informal agreement among voters. The issue of his possible reinstatement and election to the Hall remains a contentious one throughout baseball.
Rose grew up in a working class area of nearby Anderson Ferry, Ohio as one of four children to Harry and LaVerne Rose, and was encouraged as a young boy to participate in sports. His father, who played semiprofessional football, was the biggest influence on Pete and his sports career. He played both baseball and football at Western Hills High School. Rose paid so little attention to his studies in ninth grade that his teacher decreed he would have to attend summer school or be held back. His father vetoed that idea: it was better for his son to repeat a year of school, Harry Rose said, than miss a season playing ball. Barred from his high school team because of his poor performance in class, he got onto a Dayton amateur club instead and batted .500 against grown men. By the time Rose was graduated in 1960, he had impressed the Reds enough for them to offer him a $7,000 contract, with $500 more if he made it all the way to the major leagues and managed to stay there for a full year.
Rose was signed by the Reds as an amateur free agent on July 8, 1960, and was assigned to the Geneva Redlegs of the New York-Penn League . In 1961 Rose was promoted to the Class D Tampa Tarpons of the Florida State League where he batted .331, set a league record for triples and led the league in fielding errors.
Rose next moved was to the Class A Macon, Georgia team, where he hit .330, leading the league in triples and runs scored. During a spring training game against the Chicago White Sox in 1963, the Reds' regular second baseman, Don Blasingame, pulled a groin muscle. Rose got his chance and made the most of it. During another spring training game against the New York Yankees, Whitey Ford nicknamed him "Charlie Hustle" after witnessing Rose run down to first base after drawing a walk.
Rose made his debut on opening day, April 8, 1963 against the Pittsburgh Pirates and drew a walk. On April 11, Rose – who was 0-for-11 at the time – got his first Major League hit, a triple off Pittsburgh's Bob Friend . He hit .273 for the year and won the National League Rookie of the Year Award, collecting 17 of 20 votes.
On April 23, 1964, in the top of the ninth inning of a scoreless game in Colt Stadium, Rose reached first base on an error and scored on another error to make Houston Colt .45s rookie Ken Johnson the first pitcher to lose a complete game no-hitter. Rose slumped late in the season, was benched, and finished with just a .269 average.
Rose came back in 1965 to lead the league in hits (209) and at-bats (670), and hit .312, the first of his 10 seasons with 200-plus hits and the first of 15 consecutive .300 seasons. He hit a career-high 16 home runs in 1966, then switched positions from second base to right field the following year. In 1968, Rose started the season with a 22-game hit streak, missed three weeks (including the All-Star Game) with a broken thumb, then had a 19-game hit streak late in the season. He had to finish the season 6-for-9 to beat out Matty Alou and win the first of two close NL batting-title races.
Rose had his best offensive season in 1969, leading the league in batting for the second straight season (.348) and leading the league in runs with 120. As the team's leadoff man he was a catalyst, rapping 218 hits and walking 88 times. He hit 33 doubles, 11 triples, and a career-best 16 homers. He drove in 82 runs, slugged .512 (by far the highest mark of his long career), and had a .432 OBP (also a career best). But the Reds finished four games out of first, and Pete lost the MVP to Willie McCovey. Rose and Roberto Clemente were tied for the batting title going into the final game; Rose bunted for a base hit in his last at-bat of the season to beat out Clemente.
1970 All-Star Game
On July 14, 1970, in brand new Riverfront Stadium (opened just two weeks earlier), Rose was involved in one of the most famous plays in All-Star history. In the 12th inning, Rose led off with a single and went to second on a single by the Dodgers' Bill Grabarkewitz . The Cubs’ Jim Hickman then singled sharply to center. Amos Otis ' throw beat Rose to the plate, but Rose barreled over Indians catcher Ray Fosse, separating the catcher's shoulder, to score the winning run. Fosse never fully recovered from the injury.
1973 National League Championship Series
In 1973 Rose won his third and final batting title with a .338 average, collected a career-high 230 hits and was named the NL MVP. The Reds ended up losing the National League Championship Series to the Mets despite Rose’s eighth-inning home run to tie Game One and his 12th-inning home run to win Game Four. During Game Three of the series Rose got into a fight with Mets second basement Bud Harrelson while trying to break up a double play; the fight resulted in a bench-clearing brawl.
44-game hitting streak
On May 5, 1978 Rose became the 13th and youngest player in major league history to collect his 3,000th career hit, with a single off Expos pitcher Steve Rogers . On June 14 in Cincinnati, Rose singled in the first inning off Cubs pitcher Dave Roberts ; Rose would proceed to get a hit in every game he played until August 1, making a run at Joe DiMaggio’s record 56-game hitting streak, which had stood unchallenged for 37 years. The streak started quietly, but by the time it had reached 30 games, the media took notice and a pool of reporters accompanied Rose and the Reds to every game. On July 19 against the Phillies, the streak appeared to be over; Rose was hitless going into the ninth with his team trailing. He ended up walking and the streak appeared over. But the Reds managed to bat through their entire lineup, giving Rose another chance. Facing Ron Reed , Rose laid down a perfect bunt single to extend the streak to 32 games. On July 25 in Shea Stadium, Rose singled in the third inning to set the National League record of 38 consecutive games with a hit. On July 31, Rose tied Willie Keeler at 44 games; but the next day the streak came to end as Gene Garber of the Braves struck Rose out in the ninth inning. The competitive Rose was sour after the game, blasting Garber and the Braves for not challenging him with fastballs.
Rose goes to the Phillies
On a team with many great players that is acknowledged by many as one of the greatest teams ever, Rose was viewed as one of the club's leaders (along with a fellow Hall of Famer, first baseman Tony Pérez). The influence that Rose's hustling team attitude had on his teammates was very likely a factor in the success of what was called "The Big Red Machine". His 1975 performance was considered outstanding enough that he earned the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year and Sports Illustrated magazine's "Sportsman of the Year" award. The 1975 Reds remain the only team since the expansion of the playoffs in 1969 to go undefeated in the postseason.
In 1979 Rose became a free agent and signed a four-year, $3.2 million contract with the Philadelphia Phillies, temporarily making him the highest-paid athlete in team sports. With Rose, the Phillies earned three division titles, two World Series appearances and one World Series title (1980).
Back to the Reds
In 1984 Rose signed a one-year contract with the Montreal Expos. On April 13, Rose doubled off of the Phillies’ Jerry Koosman for his 4,000th career hit, joining Ty Cobb to become only the second player to accomplish that feat. Rose was traded to the Reds for infielder Tom Lawless on August 15, and was immediately named player-manager, replacing Vern Rapp .
On September 11, 1985 Rose broke Cobb’s all-time hit record with his 4,192nd hit, a single to left-center field off San Diego Padres pitcher Eric Show. Rose’s final career at-bat was a strikeout against San Diego’s Goose Gossage on August 17, 1986. On November 11, Rose was dropped from the Reds’ 40-man roster to make room for pitcher Pat Pacillo .
By the 1980s, Rose was gambling heavily on several sports, and by most accounts lost large sums. Amid reports that Rose had bet on baseball while Reds manager, he was questioned in February 1989 by outgoing commissioner Peter Ueberroth and his replacement, Giamatti. Three days later, lawyer John Dowd was retained to investigate charges against Rose. A March 21, 1989 Sports Illustrated article tied him to baseball gambling.
The Dowd Report asserted that Rose bet on 52 Reds games in 1987, at a minimum of $10,000 a day. On August 24, 1989, he voluntarily accepted a permanent place on baseball’s ineligible list. Rose accepted that there was a material reason for the ban; in return, Major League Baseball agreed to make no finding of fact with regard to the gambling allegations and on the provision that baseball would cease exploring Rose's activities (leading some observers to speculate that Rose may have bet against the Reds while managing them; had further investigations uncovered this, he would have been liable to criminal prosecution under "sports bribery" laws, which typically prohibit athletes from betting against themselves but not on themselves), and that after one year Rose could reapply for reinstatement. Rose, with a 412-373 record, was replaced by Tommy Helms
On April 21, 1990 Rose pled guilty to two charges of filing false income tax returns not showing income he received from selling autographs and baseball memorabilia. On July 20 Rose was sentenced to five months in federal prison and three months in a halfway house, ordered to serve 1,000 hours of community service, and fined $50,000. He was released January 7, 1991 after having paid $366,041 in back taxes and interest on $354,968 of unreported income.
In September 1997 Rose applied for reinstatement. As of 2005 Bud Selig, the Commissioner of Major League Baseball, is still considering the matter. If not reinstated by December 2005 Rose will not be eligible for entry into the Hall of Fame until 2009, when the Veterans Committee could select him for entry (if he is reinstated).
During the 1999 All-Star Game, Rose received the loudest ovation during the introduction of baseball's MasterCard All-Century Team . After the ceremony on live television, NBC's Jim Gray repeatedly asked Rose if he wanted to admit betting on baseball and apologize, prompting millions to call and email NBC condemning Gray's lack of tact, though ultimately history has shown Gray's questions were warranted and accurate.
In his autobiography My Prison Without Bars , published by Rodale Press on January 8, 2004, Rose finally admitted publicly to betting on baseball games (and other sports) while playing for and managing the Reds. He continued to maintain that he never bet on a Reds game. He repeated his admissions in an interview on the ABC news program Primetime Thursday. He also said in the book that he hoped his admissions would help end his ban from baseball so that he could reapply for reinstatement. Further adding to the debate was the 2004 ESPN made-for-TV movie Hustle, starring Tom Sizemore as Rose, which documented Rose's gambling problem and his subsequent ban from baseball.
Pete Rose and WWE
For three years (1998-2000), Pete Rose attended WWE's flagship Pay Per View, Wrestlemania. There, he would feud with wrestler Kane, where he would always be on the receiving end of either a chokeslam or a piledriver.
In 2004 Rose appeared at Wrestlemania XX, where he was inducted to the WWE Celebrity Hall of Fame. At the moment, he is the only member of this Hall of Fame's "Celebrity Wing."
Records and Achievements
- Major League records:
- Most career hits - 4,256
- Most career games played - 3,562
- Most career at bats - 14,053
- Most career singles - 3,315
- Most career total bases by a switch hitter - 5,752
- Most seasons of 200 or more hits - 10
- Most consecutive seasons of 100 or more hits - 23
- Most seasons with 600 or more at bats - 17
- Most seasons with 150 or more games played - 17
- Most seasons with 100 or more games played - 23
- Record for playing in the most winning games - 1,972
- Only player in major league history to play more than 500 games at five different positions - 1B (939), LF (671), 3B (634), 2B (628), RF (595)
- National League records:
- Most years played - 24
- Most consecutive years played - 24
- Most career runs - 2,165
- Most career doubles - 746
- Most career games with 5 or more hits - 10
- Modern (post-1900) record for longest consecutive game hitting streak - 44
- Modern record for most consecutive game hitting streaks of 20 or more games - 7
- NL MVP Award (1973)
- NL Rookie of the Year Award (1963)
- 18 All-Star selections
- Three World Series rings (1975, 1976, 1980)
- World Series MVP Award (1975)
- Two Gold Gloves (1969 and 1970, both as an outfielder)
- Roberto Clemente Award (1976)
- The Sporting News Player of the Year (1968)
- The Sporting News Sportsman of the Year (1985)
- The Sporting News Player of the Decade (1970s)
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