Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- 1034 - Malcolm II of Scotland died. Duncan, the son of his second daughter, instead of Macbeth, the son of his eldest daughter, inherited the throne.
- 1120 - Wreck of the White Ship in the English Channel. William Adelin, son of Henry I of England drowned.
- 1177 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard.
- 1491 - The siege of Granada, last Moorish stronghold in Spain, begins.
- 1542 - Battle of Solway Moss. An English army invades Scotland and defeats a Scottish army.
- 1758 - French and Indian War: British forces capture Fort Duquesne from French control.
- 1783 - American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
- 1795 - Partitions of Poland: Stanislaus August Poniatowski, the last king of independent Poland, was forced to abdicate and move to Russia.
- 1863 - American Civil War: Battle of Missionary Ridge - At Missionary Ridge in Tennessee, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant break the Siege of Chattanooga by routing Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg.
- 1874 - The United States Greenback Party is established as a political party made primarily of farmers financially hurt by the Panic of 1873.
- 1876 - Indian Wars: In retaliation for the dramatic American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops sack Chief Dull Knife 's sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River.
- 1905 - Haakon VII arrives in Norway.
- 1936 - In Berlin, Nazi-Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, thus agreeing to consult on what measures to take "to safeguard their common interests" in case of an unprovoked attack by the Soviet Union against either nation.
- 1940 - Woody Woodpecker first appeared in the film "Knock Knock".
- 1944 - World War II: A German V-2 rocket hits a Woolworth's store in Deptford, killing 160 shoppers.
- 1947 - Red Scare: The "Hollywood Ten" are blacklisted by Hollywood movie studios.
- 1947 - New Zealand ratifies the Statute of Westminster and thus becomes independent of legislative control by the United Kingdom.
- 1952 - Agatha Christie's murder-mystery play The Mousetrap opens at the Ambassadors Theatre in London (as of 2003 it is the longest continuously running play in history).
- 1953 - The England football team suffer their first home defeat against continental opposition
- 1958 - French Sudan gains autonomy as a self-governing member of the French Community .
- 1960 - The Mirabal sisters of the Dominican Republic were assassinated .
- 1963 - John F. Kennedy assassination: The late US President John F. Kennedy is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
- 1970 - In Japan, world-famous author Yukio Mishima commits ritualistic suicide after failing to sway public opinion toward his extreme political beliefs.
- 1973 - Greek President George Papadopoulos is ousted in military coup led by Lieutenant General Phaidon Gizikis .
- 1975 - Suriname becomes independent.
- 1980 - No Más Fight: Sugar Ray Leonard recovers the WBC world welterweight boxing title in a fight against Roberto Duran.
- 1984 - 36 of Britain and Ireland's top pop musicians gathered in a Notting Hill studio as Band Aid to record the song "Do They Know It's Christmas" in order to raise money for famine relief in Ethiopia.
- 1984 - A KCR train goes off track between Sheung Shui and Fanling.
- 1986 - Iran Contra Affair: US Attorney General Edwin Meese announces that profits from covert weapons sales to Iran were illegally diverted to the anti-communist Contra rebels in Nicaragua. Also, Fawn Hall was purported to have smuggled confidential papers out of the office of her employer, Oliver North.
- 1992 - The Czechoslovakia Federal Assembly votes to split the country into the Czech Republic and Slovakia starting on January 1, 1993.
- 1994 - Sony founder Akio Morita announces he will be stepping down as CEO of the floundering company.
- 1999 - The United Nations General Assembly passes a resolution designating November 25 as the annual International Day to Eliminate Violence Against Women.
- 2002 - US President George W. Bush signs the Homeland Security Act into law.
- 2002 - Alleged assassination attempt on Turkmen president Saparmurat Niyazov
Stem cell injection restores ability to walk
A team of Korean researchers reported on November 25, 2004, that they had transplanted multi-potent adult stem cells from umbilical cord blood to a patient suffering from a spinal cord injury and she can now walk on her own. The patient could not even stand up for the last 19 years. The team was co-headed by researchers at Chosun University, Seoul National University and the Seoul Cord Blood Bank (SCB). For the unprecedented clinical test, the scientists isolated adult stem cells from umbilical cord blood and then injected them into the damaged part of the spinal cord.
- 1562 - Félix Lope de Vega, playwright (d. 1635)
- 1577 - Piet Hein, Dutch naval commander and folk hero (d. 1629)
- 1609 - Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I of England (d. 1669)
- 1817 - John Bigelow, American statesman, author (d. 1911)
- 1830 - Lina Morgenstern , writer (d. 1909)
- 1835 - Andrew Carnegie, industrialist, philanthropist (d. 1919)
- 1844 - Karl Benz, engineer (d. 1929)
- 1846 - Carry Nation, temperance advocate (d. 1911)
- 1874 - Joe Gans, American boxer (d. 1910)
- 1881 - Pope John XXIII (d. 1963)
- 1883 - Harvey Spencer Lewis, F.R.C., Rosicrucian, founder of AMORC
- 1883 - Merrill C. Meigs, newspaper publisher, aviation promoter (d. 1968)
- 1893 - Joseph Krutch , American naturalist, author (d. 1970)
- 1895 - Wilhelm Kempff, German conductor (d. 1991)
- 1895 - Ludvík Svoboda politician and Czechoslovakia President (d. 1979)
- 1896 - Virgil Thomson, composer, music critic (d. 1989)
- 1904 - Lillian Copeland, American athlete
- 1913 - Lewis Thomas, physician, essayist (d. 1993)
- 1914 - Léon Zitrone , animator
- 1914 - Joe DiMaggio, baseball player (d. 1999)
- 1915 - Augusto Pinochet, Chilean politician
- 1920 - Ricardo Montalban, actor
- 1925 - Jeffrey Hunter, actor (d. 1969)
- 1926 - Poul Anderson, science fiction writer (d. 2001)
- 1933 - Kathryn Grant , actress
- 1940 - Reinhard Furrer, physicist, astronaut (d. 1995)
- 1940 - Joe Gibbs, Pro Football Hall of Fame coach
- 1944 - Ben Stein, actor, game show host, political consultant
- 1947 - John Larroquette, actor
- 1952 - Imran Khan, cricket player
- 1959 - Charles Kennedy, British politician
- 1960 - Amy Grant, singer
- 1960 - John F. Kennedy, Jr., son of President John F. Kennedy (d. 1999)
- 1965 - Cris Carter, American football player
- 1965 - Bernie Kosar, American football quarterback
- 1971 - Christina Applegate, American actress
- 1971 - Magnus Arvedson, hockey player
- 1978 - Shina Ringo, Japanese musician, singer, and song writer.
- 1979 - Thea Gilmore, British singer and songwriter
- 1981 - Barbara and Jenna Bush, daughters of President George W. Bush
- 1986 - Amber Hagerman, kidnapping, murder victim (d. 1996)
- 311 - Peter of Alexandria, "The Seal of the Martyrs", believed to be the last one to lose his life for the faith in the Diocletian Persecutions.
- 1034 - King Malcolm II of Scotland (killed)
- 1185 - Pope Lucius III
- 1326 - Prince Koreyasu, 7th Kamakura shogun of Japan (b. 1264)
- 1374 - Philip II of Taranto, of the Anjou family, Prince of Taranto, Titular Emperor of Costantinoples
- 1748 - Isaac Watts, English hymnwriter
- 1881 - Theobald Boehm, inventor of the modern flute.
- 1884 - Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe, chemist
- 1920 - Gaston Chevrolet, automobile pioneer
- 1944 - Kenesaw Mountain Landis, baseball commissioner
- 1947 - Léon-Paul Fargue, poet
- 1959 - Gérard Philipe, actor
- 1968 - Upton Sinclair, journalist, politician, writer
- 1965 - Dame Myra Hess, English pianist (b. 1890)
- 1970 - Yukio Mishima, writer
- 1972 - Henri Coanda, aerodynamics pioneer
- 1973 - Laurence Harvey, actor
- 1974 - U Thant, former UN Secretary-General
- 1974 - Nick Drake, musician
- 1981 - Jack Albertson, actor
- 1998 - Flip Wilson, actor, comedian
Holidays and observances
- Celebration for the year 2003 of the Muslim festival of Eid (which has no set date in the Gregorian calendar because the Muslim calendar is based on the lunar, not the solar, cycle)
- Feast day of St Catherine Laboure
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