Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day.
1900s - 1910s - 1920s - 1930s - 1940s - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s - 1990s - 2000s
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1950s
||Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip Showalter Hench
||"for the discovery of the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and function"
||"for developing a vaccine for yellow fever"
||Selman Abraham Waksman
||"for discovering the first antibiotic effective against streptomycin"
||Hans Adolf Krebs
||"for the discovery of the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration"
|Fritz Albert Lipmann
||"for discovery and research on coenzyme A"
||John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, Frederick Chapman Robbins
||"for showing how to cultivate poliomyelitis viruses in the test tube"
||Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
||"for research on enzymes and their actions, especially oxydizing enzymes"
||André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards
||"for showing how to insert a catheter into the heart and studying various heart diseases"
||"for discovering synthetic drugs such as antihistamines that block the action of biological amines"
||George Wells Beadle, Edward Lawrie Tatum, Joshua Lederberg
||"for showing that genes control individual steps in metabolism"
||Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg
||"for the synthesis of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA"
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1960s
||Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Brian Medawar
||"for the discovery that the immune system of the fetus learns how to distinguish between self and non-self"
||Georg von Békésy
||"for elucidating the cochlea of the ear"
||Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson, Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
||"for discovering the molecular structure of DNA"
||Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Fielding Huxley
||"for describing the electric transmission of impulses along nerves"
||Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen
||"for research on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
||François Jacob, André Lwoff, Jacques Monod
||"for discovering messenger RNA, ribosomes, and the genes controlling the expression of other genes"
||"for the discovery of viruses that induce tumours"
|Charles B. Huggins
||"for the discovery of the treatment of prostate cancer with hormones"
||Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline, George Wald
||"for describing the different types of light-sensitive cells in the eye and how light interacts with them"
||Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg
||"for describing the genetic code and how it operates in protein synthesis"
||Max Delbrück, Alfred Hershey, Salvador E. Luria
||"for work on the replication mechanicsm and genetics of viruses"
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1970s
||Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod
||"for work on neurotransmitters"
||Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
||"for discovery of the action of hormones, especially epinephrine, via second messengers"
||Gerald M. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter
||"for discovering the chemical structure of antibodies"
||Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen
||"for the study of social animal behavior, especially the explanation of the "dance language" of bees and how young birds become fixated on their mother"
||Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George E. Palade
||"for describing the structure and function of organelles in biological cells"
||David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard Martin Temin
||"for describing how tumor viruses act on the genetic material of the cell"
||Baruch S. Blumberg
||"for the discovery of hepatitis B virus"
| D. Carleton Gajdusek
||"for describing the disease kuru caused by cannibalism "
||Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally
||"for work on peptide hormones produced in the brain"
||"for creating the Yalow-Berson method to measure minute amounts of peptide hormones using antibodies"
||Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith
||"for the discovery of restriction enzymes which are instrumental in molecular biology"
||Allan M. Cormack, Godfrey N. Hounsfield
||"for developing computer assisted tomography"
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1980s
||Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. Snell
||"for discovery of the Major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and non-self"
||Roger W. Sperry
||"for research on the cerebral hemispheres"
|David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel
||"for work on the processing of visual information in the brain"
||Sune Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane
||"for the discovery of prostaglandins"
||"for discovery of mobile genetic elements or transposons in maize"
||Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein
||"for work on the immune system and the production of monoclonal antibodies"
||Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein
||"for describing the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
||Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini
||"for discovering growth factors"
||"for discovering how the large diversity of antibodies is produced genetically"
||Sir James W. Black
||"for the development of beta blockers and histamine-2 receptor blocker"
|Gertrude B. Elion
||"for the development of drugs used in the treatment of cancer and the suppression of transplantation rejection"
|George H. Hitchings
||"for the development of various antibiotics"
||J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus
||"for discovering the cellular origins of retroviral oncogenes"
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1990s
||Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas
||"for work on organ and cell transplantation"
|| Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann
||"for developing techniques which show that ion channels exist in the cell membrane and which allow to study their properties"
||Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs
||"for discovering how phosphorylation of proteins is used to regulate biological processes"
||Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp
||"for the discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to delete those introns can occur in different ways, yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence"
||Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell
||"for the discovery of G proteins and their role in signal transduction in cells"
||Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus
||"for the discovery of the genes involved in the developmental program of the fruit fly, the homeobox genes"
||Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel
||"for describing how MHC molecules are used by white blood cells to detect and kill virus-infected cells."
||Stanley B. Prusiner
||"for the discovery of prions, infectious protein particles"
||Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad
||"for discovery of the signalling properties of nitric oxide"
||"for the discovery that newly synthesized proteins contain "address tags" which direct them to the proper location within the cell"
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