Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
New London, Connecticut
New London, Connecticut is a city in New London County, at the mouth of the Thames River and on the northeastern shore of Long Island Sound. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 25,671. (New London is also a town with the same boundaries; any distinction between its identity as a town and as a city became merely technical by the 20th century, and can be expected to remain so.)
New London hosts Connecticut College, Mitchell College, and the United States Coast Guard Academy, as well as the small private secondary school The Williams School . The Connecticut College Arboretum is a fine, 750-acre arboretum and botanical garden.
New London lies across the Thames from the town of Groton, Connecticut, home of a United States Navy submarine base and of "EB", the Electric Boat Division of the General Dynamics Corporation, which built most existing U.S. nuclear-powered submarines there. As world research headquarters of the pharmaceutical giant Pfizer, New London and Groton have given birth to many drugs, including Viagra.
New London lies on Long Island Sound , roughly half-way between New Haven, Connecticut and Providence, Rhode Island. Interstate 95 connects it to both of those cities, and it is 5 miles (8 km.) from Interstate 395, the fastest road route to the Boston metropolitan area. Ferries also transport cars and pedestrians between New London and Orient Point, at the northeastern tip of Long Island; they also provide access with Fishers Island, a small island that (despite its lying closer to New London) is in New York State.
Before English settlement, nearby tribal people called the site of New London by a name the English spelled "Nameaug". John Winthrop, Jr. led the first English to settle there in 1646, making it about the 13th modern Connecticut town settled by colonists; they informally named it Pequot (from the name of a tribe). It officially took its current name (after London, England) on 1658 March 10.
Prior to the Battle of Groton Heights, New London was burned by the traitorous Benedict Arnold in the attempts to destroy the colonial privateer fleet and storage of goods and naval stores within the city.
Connecticut's independent legislature, in its January session of 1784, made New London one of the first two cities (along with New Haven) brought from de facto to formalized incorporations.
The city was the birthplace of sculptor Edward Clark Potter.
The family of Nobel and Pulitzer-Prize playwright Eugene O'Neill, and most of his own first 26 years, were intimately connected to New London. He lived for years there, and as an adult was employed and wrote his first 7 or 8 plays in the city. (A major O'Neill archive is located at Connecticut College there, and a family home there is a museum and Registered National Landmark operated by the O'Neill Theater Center .)
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 25,671 people, 10,181 households, and 5,385 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,789.1/km² (4,635.5/mi²). There are 11,560 housing units at an average density of 805.7/km² (2,087.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 63.49% White, 18.64% African American, 0.88% Native American, 2.12% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 9.13% from other races, and 5.67% from two or more races. 19.71% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 10,181 households out of which 27.6% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.4% are married couples living together, 17.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 47.1% are non-families. 37.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.26 and the average family size is 3.00.
In the city the population is spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 17.6% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 93.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $33,809, and the median income for a family is $38,942. Males have a median income of $31,405 versus $25,426 for females. The per capita income for the city is $18,437. 15.8% of the population and 13.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 23.5% of those under the age of 18 and 11.4% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
New London has a form of government centering on a professional city manager and elected city council. Distinct town and city government structures formerly existed, and technically continue. However, they now govern exactly the same territory, and have elections on the same ballot on Election Day in November of odd-numbered years; the officials of town and city interact essentially as do a single town's, or city's, officials, who have different but related responsibilities and powers.
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