Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Motown Record Company, L.P., also known as Tamla-Motown outside of the United States, is a record label specializing in the musical genres of R&B, pop, soul music, and hip-hop music. The label was originally based out of Detroit, Michigan ("Motor Town"), and is named for the city's association with the automobile industry. Motown was the first record label owned by an African-American to become a widespread international success, and played an important role in the integration of popular music.
Originally incorporated on December 14 1959 by Berry Gordy, Jr. as Tamla Records, Motown has, over the course of its history, owned or distributed more than 45 labels in varying genres, including Mel-o-dy, Miracle, Gordy, Soul, Rare Earth, and Mo-west. Motown left Detroit for Los Angeles, California in 1972, and remained an independent company until 1988, when Gordy sold the company to MCA. Now headquartered in both Detroit and New York City, Motown Records is today a subsidiary of the Universal Motown Records Group, itself a subsidiary of Universal Music.
In the 1960s, Motown and its subsidiaries were the most successful proponents of what came to be known as The Motown Sound, a style of soul music with distinctive characteristics, including the use of tambourine along with drums, bass instrumentation, a distinctive melodical and chord structure, and a "call and response" singing style originating in gospel music.
Berry Gordy, Jr. got his start as a songwriter for local Detroit acts such as Jackie Wilson and the Matadors. In 1959, he started his own record label, Tamla Records; his first signed act was The Matadors, who changed their name to The Miracles. Miracles lead singer Smokey Robinson became the vice president of the company, and many of Gordy's family members, including his sister Gwen and his father Berry Sr. had instrumental roles in the company.
Also in 1959, Gordy purchased the property that would become Motown's Hitsville U.S.A. studio and offices. A photographer's studio was modfied into the administrative offices for the label, with a large recording studio built downstairs in the basement.
Among Motown's early artists were Mabel John , Mary Wells, and Barrett Strong. The label's first hit was Barrett Strong's "Money (That's What I Want)" (1959), which made it to #2 on the Billboard R&B charts; its first #1 R&B hit was "Shop Around" by the Miracles in 1960. A year later, The Marvelettes scored the label's first US #1 pop hit, "Please Mr. Postman." By the mid-1960s, the label, with the help of songwriters and producers such as Robinson and Holland-Dozier-Holland, was a major force in the music industry.
In the 1960's (from 1961 to 1971), Motown had 110 Top 10 hits and artists such as Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, Diana Ross & The Supremes, The Temptations, The Four Tops, The Jackson 5, and Gladys Knight & the Pips were all signed to Motown Records.
In 1967, three of Motown's most popular groups had their lead singers receive top billing over the group. The Miracles were renamed Smokey Robinson & the Miracles, The Supremes became Diana Ross & the Supremes, and Martha & the Vandellas became Martha Reeves & the Vandellas. This was done, according to Gordy, to be able to negotiate for more money for live performances, since Motown would be offering two acts--a lead singer and a group--instead of just one. David Ruffin, then lead singer of The Temptations, decided that he should receive the same treatment that Robinson, Ross, and Reeves received, and demanded that Motown rename his group "David Ruffin & the Temptations". The name change never occurred, and Ruffin was replaced by former Contour Dennis Edwards in July 1968.
After Holland-Dozier-Holland left the label in 1968 over royalty payment disputes, the quality of the Motown output began to decline, as well as the frequency with which its artists scored #1 hits. Even so, Motown still boasted a roster of successful artists during the 1970s and 1980s, including Lionel Richie and The Commodores, Rick James, Teena Marie and DeBarge. Motown relocated from Detroit to Los Angeles in 1972 and attempted to branch out into the motion picture industry, turning out films such as Lady Sings the Blues, Mahogany, The Wiz, Thank God It's Friday and The Last Dragon.
Berry Gordy sold his ownership in Motown to MCA and Boston Ventures in June 1988 for $61 million. Today a subsidiary of Universal Music, Motown is still active as a record label, and has been home to artists such as Boyz II Men, Brian McKnight, Erykah Badu, Johnny Gill (ex-New Edition) and India.Arie. Stevie Wonder is still signed to Motown to this day, making him the only act from the "classic years" still on the label.
Artist development and production process
Artist development was a major part of Motown's operations. The acts on the Motown label were fastidiously groomed, dressed and choreographed for live performances. Motown artists were told that their breakthrough into the white popular music market made them ambassadors for other African-American artists seeking broad market acceptance, and that they should think, act, walk and talk like royalty, so as to alter the less-than-dignified image (commonly held by white Americans in that era) of black musicians.
Motown's music was crafted with the same eye towards pop appeal. Berry Gordy used weekly quality control meetings and veto power to ensure that only records with appeal to both white and black audiences would be released. Many of Motown's most well known songs, such as all of the early hits for The Supremes, were written by the songwriting trio Holland-Dozier-Holland. Other important producers and songwritiers at Motown's Hitsville U.S.A. recording studio and headquaters included Norman Whitfield & Barrett Strong, Nickolas Ashford & Valerie Simpson, Frank Wilson, Motown artists Smokey Robinson and Stevie Wonder, and Gordy himself.
The many artists and producers of Motown Records collaborated to produce numerous hit songs, although the process has been described as factory-like (such as the Brill Building). The Hitsville studios remained open and active 22 hours a day, and artists would often be on tour for weeks, come back to Detroit to record as many songs as possible, and then promptly set back out on tour again.
- "ABC" by The Jackson 5
- "You Keep Me Hangin' On" by The Supremes
- "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" by Marvin Gaye
- "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie, Honey Bunch)" by The Four Tops
- "My Girl" by The Temptations
See also: Category:Motown performers
1950s and 1960s
- Mabel John
- Barrett Strong
- The Miracles (later Smokey Robinson & the Miracles)
- Mary Wells
- Marvin Gaye
- Edward Holland, Jr.
- The Andantes
- The Marvelettes
- The Supremes (later Diana Ross & the Supremes)
- The Temptations
- Stevie Wonder (originally Little Stevie Wonder)
- Jimmy Ruffin
- David Ruffin
- Kim Weston
- Martha & the Vandellas (later Martha Reeves & the Vandellas)
- Jr. Walker & the All Stars
- The Four Tops
- Brenda Holloway
- The Velvelettes
- Tammi Terrell
- The Spinners
- The Isley Brothers
- Gladys Knight & the Pips
- Bobby Taylor & the Vancouvers
- Rare Earth
- The Jackson 5
- Edwin Starr
- Syreeta Wright
- Diana Ross
- Eddie Kendricks
- G.C. Cameron
- Michael Jackson
- Jermaine Jackson
- Smokey Robinson
- Thelma Houston
- The Commodores
- Rick James
From 1959 to 1971, many of these acts were backed by Motown Records' major studio band, The Funk Brothers, which was credited for being instrumental in creating the essential sound of Motown. The band's career and work is chronicled in the acclaimed documentary, Standing in the Shadows of Motown.
(grouped by musical genre)
- Soul: Motown (The Supremes, The Jackson 5); Tamla (Marvin Gaye, Eddie Kendricks); Gordy (The Temptations); Mel-o-dy; Miracle; Mo-west (Syreeta Wright), Soul (Gladys Knight & the Pips, Jimmy Ruffin)
- Gospel: Divinity
- Rock: Infinity, Morocco, Rare Earth (Rare Earth)
- Jazz: Workshop; Jazz; Chisa; Blaze
- Country and Western: Hitsville; Melodyland; MC
- Spoken Word: Black Forum
- Social Issues: Gaiee; Ecology
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