Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. The term "mineral" encompasses not only the material's chemical composition but also the mineral structures. Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms (organic compounds are usually excluded). The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
Mineral definition and classification
To be classified as a "true" mineral, a substance must be a solid and have a crystal structure. It must also be an inorganic, naturally-occurring, homogenous substance with a defined chemical composition. The chemical composition may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the plagioclase feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodium-rich albite (NaAlSi3O8) to calcium-rich anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) with four recognized intermediate compositions between. Mineral-like substances that don't strictly meet the definition are sometimes classified as mineraloids.
A crystal structure refers to the orderly geometric spatial arrangement of atoms in the internal structure of a mineral. There are 14 basic lattice arrangements of atoms in three dimensions in the six crystal systems, and all crystal structures currently recognized fit in one of these 14 arrangements. This crystal structure is based on regular internal atomic or ionic arrangement that is often visible as the mineral form. Even when the mineral grains are too small to see or are irregularly shaped the crystal structure can be determined by x-ray analysis and/or optical microscopy.
Chemistry and crystal structure define together a mineral. In fact, two or more minerals may have the same chemical composition, but differ in crystal structure (these are known as polymorphs). For example, pyrite and marcasite are both iron sulfide. Similarly, some minerals have different chemical compositions, but the same crystal structure: for example, halite (made from sodium and chlorine), galena (made from lead and sulfur) and periclase (made from magnesium and oxygen) all share the same cubic crystal structure.
Crystal structure greatly influences a mineral's physical properties. For example, though diamond and graphite have the same composition (both are pure carbon), graphite is very soft, while diamond is the hardest of all known minerals.
There are currently just over 4,000 known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, which is responsible for the approval of and naming of new mineral species found in nature.
Minerals and rocks
A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic substance with a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure. A rock is an aggregate of two or more minerals. (A rock may also include organic remains.) The specific minerals in a rock can vary a lot. Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are common, while others have been found in only one or two locations worldwide. Over half of the mineral species known are so rare that they have only been found in a handful of samples, and many are known from only one or two small grains.
Physical properties of minerals
Classifying minerals can range from simple to very difficult. A mineral can be identified by several physical properties, some of them being sufficient for full identification without equivocation. In other cases, minerals can only be classified by more complex chemical or X-ray diffraction analysis; these methods, however, can be costly, time-consuming, and even risk damaging the sample.
Physical properties commonly used are :
- Crystal structure and habit: See the above discussion of crystal structure. A mineral may show good crystal habit or form, or it may be massive, granular or compact with only microscopically visible crystals.
- Hardness: the physical hardness of a mineral is usually measured according to the Mohs scale of mineral hardness.
- Luster indicates the way a mineral's surface interacts with light and can range from dull to glassy (vitreous).
- Color indicates the appearance of the mineral in reflected light or transmitted light for translucent minerals (i.e. what it looks like to the naked eye).
- Streak refers to the color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on an unglazed porcelain streak plate.
- Cleavage describes the way a mineral may come apart or cleave in different ways. In thin section, cleavage is visible as thin parallel lines across a mineral.
- Fracture describes how a mineral breaks when broken contrary to its natural cleavage planes.
- Specific gravity relates the mineral mass to the mass of an equal volume of water, namely the density of the material.
- Other properties: fluorescence (response to ultraviolet light), magnetism, radioactivity, tenacity (response to mechanical induced changes of shape or form), and reactivity to dilute acids.
Chemical properties of minerals
Minerals may be classified according to chemical composition. They are here categorized by anion group. The list below is in approximate order of their abundance in the Earth's crust. The list follows the Dana classification system.
The largest group of minerals by far are the silicates, which are composed largely of silicon and oxygen, with the addition of ions such as aluminium, magnesium, iron, and calcium. Some important rock-forming silicates include the feldspars, quartz, olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, garnets, and micas.
The carbonates consist of those minerals containing the anion (CO3)2- and include calcite and aragonite (both calcium carbonate), dolomite (magnesium/calcium carbonate) and siderite (iron carbonate). Carbonates are commonly deposited in marine settings when the shells of dead planktonic life settle and accumulate on the sea floor. Carbonates are also found in evaporitic settings (e.g. the Great Salt Lake, Utah) and also in karst regions, where the dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonates leads to the formation of caves, stalactites and stalagmites. The carbonate class also includes the nitrate and borate minerals.
Sulfates all contain the sulfate anion, in the form SO42-. Sulfates commonly form in evaporitic settings where highly saline waters slowly evaporate, allowing the formation of both sulfates and halides at the water-sediment interface. Sulfates also occur in hydrothermal vein systems as gangue minerals along with sulfide ore minerals. Another occurrence is as secondary oxidation products of original sulfide minerals. Common sulfates include anhydrite (calcium sulfate), celestite (strontium sulfate), barite (barium sulfate), and gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate). The sulfate class also includes the chromate, molybdate, selenate, sulfite, tellurate, and tungstate minerals.
The halides are the group of minerals forming the natural salts and include fluorite (calcium fluoride), halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride), and sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). Halides, like sulfates, are commonly found in evaporitic settings such as playa lakes and landlocked seas such as the Dead Sea and Great Salt Lake. The halide class includes the fluoride, chloride, and iodide minerals.
Oxides are extremely important in mining as they form many of the ores from which valuable metals can be extracted. They commonly occur as precipitates close to the Earth's surface, oxidation products of other minerals in the near surface weathering zone, and as accesory minerals in igneous rocks of the crust and mantle. Common oxides include hematite (iron oxide), magnetite (iron oxide), chromite (chromium oxide), spinel (magnesium aluminium oxide - a common component of the mantle), rutile (titanium dioxide), and ice (hydrogen oxide). The oxide class includes the oxide and the hydroxide minerals.
Many sulfides are economically important as metal ores. Common sulfides include pyrite (iron sulfide - commonly known as fools' gold), chalcopyrite (copper iron sulfide) and galena (lead sulfide). The sulfide class also includes the selenides, the tellurides, the arsenides, the antimonides, the bismuthinides, and the sulfosalts (sulfur and a second anion such as arsenic).
The phosphate group actually includes any mineral with a tetrahedral unit AO4 where A can be phosphorus, antimony, arsenic or vanadium. By far the most common phosphate is apatite which is an important biological mineral found in teeth and bones of many animals. The phosphate class includes the phosphate, arsenate, vanadate, and antimonate minerals.
The Elemental group includes metals and intermetallic elements (gold, silver, copper), semi-metals and non-metals (antimony, bismuth, graphite, sulfur). This group also includes natural alloys, such as electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver), phosphides, silicides, nitrides and carbides (which are usually only found naturally in a few rare meteorites).
Dietary mineral refers to inorganic compounds necessary for life and good nutrition. Some of these are scientific minerals such as salt; others are elements, such as potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, copper. These can be naturally occurring in food or added in elemental or mineral form, such as calcium carbonate or sodium chloride. Some of these additives come from natural sources such as ground oyster shells. Sometimes minerals are added to the diet separately from food, as vitamin and mineral supplements and in dirt eating, called pica or geophagy.
- A list of minerals with associated Wikipedia articles
- A comprehensive list of minerals
- Mineral wool
- Norman L. Bowen
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