Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Judicial review is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent; for example, although the basis is different in different countries, as unconstitutional or violating of basic principles of justice. In many jurisdictions, the court has the power to strike down that law, to overturn the executive act, or order a public official to act in a certain manner if it believes the law or act to be unconstitutional or to be contrary to law in a free and democratic society. In some, such as Scotland and also England, the power goes further, and it may be possible to strike down a decision simply because it ignored relevant and material facts.
Judicial review in individual countries
Judicial review in Australia
The easiest way of obtaining judicial review in Australia at Commonwealth (federal) level is by proceeding under the Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977 (Cth), or ADJR for short. An administrative act may be reviewable if it is a decision of an administrative character made, proposed to be made, or required to be made under an enactment by a Commonwealth authority or officer, excluding a decision of the Governor-General or a decision made exempt under statute. The Act provides for review of decisions (s5), conduct engaged in for the purpose of making a decision (s6) of failing to make a decision (s7). Under the Act, statutory orders of review replace the common law writs and equitale remedies (s16).
Various Australian States also provide for statutory judicial review. In Queensland, the common law doctrines have been repealed and replaced under Part 5 (ss41-47) of the Judicial Review Act 1992 (Qld). Part 3 (ss20-30) provides the equivalent of the Commonwealth scheme, with the exception that decisions of an administrative character may also be reviewable if made under a "non-statutory scheme or program", provided it is publicly funded (s4(b)).
Judicial review in Canada
In Canada, the same principle applies as in the British parliamentary system, though since the Constitution of Canada created a federal state there was an issue of the division of powers so while there were questions regarding judicial review when jurisdictional conflicts arose, there was no clear power to overturn laws based upon other grounds. It is important to note that the courts in each province, while provincial, are courts of plenary jurisdiction under the Canadian constitution and are held to have the traditional powers of judicial review such as in England and Wales. Regarding the review of administrative decisions by public officials the concepts of fundamental justice and overturning of patently unreasonable decisionmaking have developed along with the evolution of the royal writs as in the United Kingdom.
In 1982 when the patriated Canadian Constitution came into force the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms created a clear written power of judicial review. In that document, the Supreme Court of Canada was granted the power of judicial review beyond the power that it had held prior to that date. This power can be overridden by governments with respect to certain clauses of the Charter by invoking the notwithstanding clause in legislation. However, it is a mechanism which is often considered dangerous politically because of public respect for the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Judicial review in Germany
In Germany, judicial review is a legal principle defined and guaranteed by the German constitution (often referred to as the Basic Law or Grundgesetz). Judicial review is indeed intended as a safeguard against tyranny of the majority and has been successfully employed to challenge, for example, the national census efforts of the German government in the 1980s. In particular, article 93 states that the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) shall rule:
- 1. on the interpretation of this Basic Law in the event of disputes concerning the extent of the rights and duties of a supreme federal body or of other parties vested with rights of their own by this Basic Law or by the rules of procedure of a supreme federal body;
- 2. in the event of disagreements or doubts respecting the formal or substantive compatibility of federal law or state law with this Basic Law, or the compatibility of state law with other federal law, on application of the Federal Government, of a state government, or of one third of the Members of the Bundesrat;
- 2a. in the event of disagreements whether a law meets the requirements of paragraph (2) of Article 72, on application of the Bundesrat or of the government or legislature of a state;
- 3. in the event of disagreements respecting the rights and duties of the Federation and the states, especially in the execution of federal law by the states and in the exercise of federal oversight;
- 4. on other disputes involving public law between the Federation and the states, between different states, or within a state, unless there is recourse to another court;
- 4a. on constitutional complaints, which may be filed by any person alleging that one of his basic rights or one of his rights under paragraph (4) of Article 20 or under Article 33, 38, 101, 103, or 104 has been infringed by public authority;
- 4b. on constitutional complaints filed by municipalities or associations of municipalities on the ground that their right to self-government under Article 28 has been infringed by a law; in the case of infringement by a state law, however, only if the law cannot be challenged in the constitutional court of the state;
- 5. in the other instances provided for in this Basic Law.
Also, article 93 provides that any court, as part of its proceedings, may request the Federal Constitutional Court or the appropriate land court to review a particular statute's constitutionality or compatibility with applicable international law.
Judicial review in Scotland
The power of judicial review of all actings of administrative bodies or courts in Scotland (and even in theory of the Scottish Parliament) is held by the Court of Session. The procedure is governed by Chapter 58 of the Rules of Court, although there are special rules for some categories of cases such as judicial review of the immigration appeal tribunal. There are no time limits on seeking judicial review, although if proper administration is prejudiced by delay the court may in its discretion refuse to grant it. In general, judicial review is available for any error of law by an administrative body, but it is sometimes possible to seek judicial review simply on the basis that the decision was entirely unreasonable, ignored known facts, or took irrelevant material into account. About six hundred judicial review cases are brought every year; most of these are settled by agreement and only a small minority have to be decided by the court. There is a full discussion on this site.
Judicial review in Switzerland
Article 191 of the Swiss Federal Constitution states that federal statutes and international law are binding on the Federal Supreme Court. In consequence, the courts are not empowered to review the constitutionality of federal statutes, but will, where possible, construe statutes so as not to create a conflict with the Constitution. The courts can suspend the application of federal statutes that conflict with international law, but tend to exercise this power cautiously and deferentially: In Schubert (BGE 99 Ib 39), the Federal Supreme Court refused to do so because Parliament had consciously violated international law in drafting the statute at issue.
The reason traditionally given for the lack of judicial review is the Swiss system of popular democracy: If 50'000 citizens so demand, any new statute is made subject to a popular referendum. In this sense, it is the people themselves that exercise judicial review.
The situation described above for Swiss federal law applies mutatis mutandis to the constitutional and legal systems of the individual cantons. However, owing to the derogatory power of federal law, federal courts as a matter of course exercise judicial review on cantonal law, as well as on federal executive law (ordinances, executive orders etc.).
Judicial review in the United States
The power of judicial review is held by courts in the United States which while developing out of British law is based fundamentally on the tripartite nature of governmental power as enunciated in the United States Constitution. The only explicit definition given in the Constitution is in Article III, where it says that "[t]he judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." Judicial review was legally established in the Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison, though some legal scholars argue that the concept predates this case and "all those who discussed judicial review during ratification [of the U.S. Constitution] (there were dozens) agreed that the Constitution authorized judicial review."
The ultimate court for deciding the constitutionality of federal or state law under the Constitution of the United States is the Supreme Court of the United States. The ultimate court for deciding the constitutionality of state law under state constitutions is the highest appellate court in each state -- usually called a Supreme Court, but also sometimes known as the Court of Appeals.
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