Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Hasdrubal was the name of several Carthaginian generals, among whom the following are the most important:
1. The son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca, who followed the latter in his campaign against the governing aristocracy at Carthage at the close of the First Punic War, and in his subsequent career of conquest in Spain. After Hamilcar's death (228 BC) Hasdrubal, who succeeded him in the command, extended the newly acquired empire by skilful diplomacy, and consolidated it by the foundation of Carthago Nova (Cartagena) as the capital of the new province, and by a treaty with Rome which fixed the Ebro as the boundary between the two powers. He was killed by a Celtic assassin in 221 BC.
2. The second son of Hamilcar Barca, and younger brother of Hannibal. Left in command of Spain when Hannibal departed to Italy (218 BC), he fought for six years against the brothers Gnaeus and Publius Cornelius Scipio. He had on the whole the worst of the conflict, and a defeat in 216 BC prevented him from joining Hannibal in Italy at a critical moment; but in 212 BC he completely routed his opponents, both the Scipios being killed. He was subsequently outgeneralled by Scipio Africanus Major, who in 209 BC captured Carthago Nova and gained other advantages. In the same year he was summoned to join his brother in Italy. He eluded Scipio by crossing the Pyrenees at their western extremity, and, making his way thence through Gaul and the Alps in safety, penetrated far into Central Italy (207 BC). He was ultimately checked by two Roman armies, and being forced to give battle was decisively defeated on the banks of the Metaurus . Hasdrubal himself fell in the fight; his head was cut off and thrown into Hannibal's camp as a sign of his utter defeat.
This entry incorporates material from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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