Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music.
Gospels are a genre of ancient literature concerning the life of Jesus. The word derives from the Old English word for "Good News", a translation of the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, euangelion. This refers to the 'good news' being told—that Jesus has redeemed a fallen world. Each of the books reveals, by preaching and reinterpretation, the story of Jesus Christ's life, the "Good News" about Christ's life and presence. The word gospel can also have a narrower meaning, especially when used by evangelical Christians, to mean the specific actions of Christ that are necessary for salvation.
The expression "gospel" was used by Paul before the literary Gospels of the New Testament canon had been produced, when he reminded the men of the church at Corinth "of the gospel I preached to you" (1 Corinthians 15.1) through which, Paul averred, they were being saved, and he characterized it in the simplest terms, emphasizing Christ's appearances after the Resurrection (15.3 – 8):
- ...that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures;  that he was buried; that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures;  that he appeared to Kephas, then to the Twelve.  After that, he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at once, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep.  After that he appeared to James, then to all the apostles.  Last of all, as to one born abnormally, he appeared to me.
The use of gospel (or its Greek equivalent) to denote a particular genre of writing dates to the 2nd century. It was clearly used to denote a genre in Justin Martyr (c. 155) and more ambiguously so earlier in Ignatius of Antioch (c. 117).
Of the many gospels written in antiquity, exactly four gospels came to be accepted as part of the New Testament, or canonical; an insistence upon a canonical four, and no others, was a central theme of Irenaeus of Lyons, c. 185.
Origin of the canonical Gospels
Among the canonical Gospels, Matthew, Mark, and Luke include many of the same passages in the life of Jesus and sometimes use identical or very similar wording. (Non-canonical Peter reports much of the same material, however, and Thomas reports many of the same sayings of Jesus.) John, on the other hand, though it was eventually accepted into the canon, expresses itself in a different style and relates the same incidents in a different way, and is often full of more encompassing theological and philosophical messages.
The parallels between the first three Gospels are so telling that many scholars have investigated the relationship between them. In order to study them more closely, German scholar JJ Griesbach (1776) arranged the first three gospels in a three-column table called a synopsis. As a result, the Matthew, Mark, and Luke have come to be known as the synoptic Gospels, and the question of the reason for this similarity, and the relationship between these Gospels more generally, is known as the synoptic problem.
Many solutions to the synoptic problem have been proposed, but the dominant view is that Mark is the first Gospel, with Matthew and Luke borrowing passages both from that Gospel and from another, lost source, known as Q. This view is known as the "Two Source" hypothesis. The "Four Source" hypothesis includes two other sources M and L .
Another theory which addresses the synoptic problem is the Farrer hypothesis. This theory maintains Markan priority (that Mark was written first) and dispenses with the need for a theoretical document Q. What Austin Farrer has argued is that Luke used Matthew as a source as well as Mark, explaining the similarities between them without having to refer to a hypothetical document.
Estimates for the dates when the gospels were written vary significantly, and the evidence for any of the dates is scanty. Conservative scholars tend to date earlier than others. The following are mostly the date ranges given by the late Raymond E. Brown, in his book An Introduction to the New Testament, as representing the general scholarly consensus in 1996:
- Matthew: c. 70–100 as the majority view, with conservative scholars arguing for a pre-70 date, particularly if they do not accept Mark as the first gospel written.
- Mark: c. 68–73
- Luke: c. 80–100, with most arguing for somewhere around 85
- John: c. 90–110. Brown does not give a consensus view for John, but these are dates as propounded by C K Barrett, among others. The majority view is that it was written in stages, so there was no one date of composition.
The general consensus among biblical scholars is that all four canonical Gospels were originally written in Greek, the lingua franca of the Roman Orient. It has been suggested that Matthew may have originally been written in Aramaic, or that it was translated from Aramaic to Greek at a very early stage, probably by the author himself. Regardless, no Aramaic original texts of the Gospels has ever been found, only translations from the Greek (see Peshitta).
In addition to the four canonical gospels there have been other gospels that were not accepted into the canon. Some of these works appear to be later compositions than the canonical gospels, and as such were only ever accepted by small portions of the early Christian community. Some of the content of these non-canonical gospels (as much as it deviates from accepted theological norms) is considered heretical by the leadership of mainstream churches, including the Vatican.
A genre of "infancy gospels" (Greek: protoevangelion) arose in the 2nd century, such as the Gospel of James, which introduces the concept of the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas (not to be confused with the sayings Gospel of Thomas), both of which related many miraculous incidents from the life of Mary and the childhood of Jesus that are not included in the canonical gospels, but which have passed into Christian lore.
Another genre that has been suppressed is that of gospel harmonies, in which the apparent discrepencies in the canonical four gospels were selectively recast to present a harmonoiusly consistent narrative text. Very few fragments of harmonies survived. The Diatessaron was such a harmonization, compiled by Tatian around AD 175. It was popular for at least two centuries in Syria, but eventually it fell into disuse, and no copies of it have survived, except indirectly in some medieval Gospel harmonies that can be considered its descendants.
Marcion of Sinope, c. AD 150, produced his own edition of the Gospel of Luke in accordance with his dualistic belief in two different gods, the compassionate God of Christ and the cruel God of the Old Testament. Specifically, he removed those parts of Luke that he considered too "Jewish". He also rejected all other gospels.
The existence of private knowledge, briefly referred to in the canon, is part of the contention surrounding the Secret Gospel of Mark.
List of apocryphal Gospels
Some Gospels that were not eventually included in the canon are similar in style and content to the canonical Gospels. Others are Gnostic in style and content, presenting a very different view of Jesus' teaching.
Gospels that were not accepted, which form part of the New Testament Apocrypha, include:
- Authentic Matthew, the Aramaic Matthew
- Gospel of Thomas
- Gospel of Philip
- Gospel of Peter
- Gospel of Mary
- Gospel of the Egyptians
- Gospel of the Hebrews
- Gospel of James
- Gospel of Judas
- See also the mistaken "Gospel of Hermes."
Other works claiming to be gospels have surfaced in later periods. The Gospel of Barnabas originated in the medieval period. Works from the modern period (sometimes called modern apocrypha) include the Aquarian Gospel of Jesus Christ and the Life of Issa. Parts of the Book of Mormon can also be considered to be a gospel, since they purport to tell of Jesus' appearances on the American continent.
In many Christian churches, all Christians present stand when a passage from one of the Gospels is read publicly, and sit when a passage from a different part of the Bible is read.
Usage in Eastern Orthodoxy liturgy
Typically, the Gospel is publicly read only by a priest or bishop, although other Bible passages may be read by a designated lay person. Or the Gospel is read by a deacon after a priest or bishop gives him benediction. As in other churches, all stand while the Gospel is being read. Also, the Gospel book is normally kept in a prominent place on the altar. The only thing that is permitted to occupy its place on the altar is the Body and Blood of Christ during the Divine Liturgy, or on certain feast days a Cross. When the Gospel is read, it is brought from the altar to the nave in procession, and afterwards returned to its place. The daily reading is determined according to the annual liturgy calendar, but on a feast day some appropriate part is read in addition to or in place of the part dictated by the regular reading order. The cycle of reading order begins in the Pascha (Easter) with the Gospel of John.
In the Matin of Sunday service, after the reading of Gospel by a priest, the faithful kiss the Bible and the Cross and then receive the benediction from a priest.
- Read Matthew's Gospel at the World English Bible Website or at Bible Gateway.
- Read Mark's Gospel at the World English Bible Website or the Bible Gateway.
- Read Luke's Gospel at the World English Bible Website or the Bible Gateway.
- Read John's Gospel at the World English Bible Website or the Bible Gateway.
- A detailed discussion of the textual variants in the Gospels — covering about 1200 variants on 2000 pages.
- Greek New Testament — the Greek text of the New Testament: specifically the Westcott-Hort text from 1881, combined with the NA26/27 variants.
- GospelTruth.info — traditional Christian Bible study.
- Essays on Gospel — from a traditional evangelical standpoint.
- Introduction to the New Testament: The Gospels, by Dr. Robert Stein — from Biblical Training, traditional evangelical resources for theological education.
- Thanks4supporting.us/bibles — read the Bible in various different versions and translations.
- Introduction to The Complete Gospels — an excerpt and information about this compilation of canonical and non-canonical gospels in translation.
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