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Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) is the most common cause of functional abnormal uterine bleeding , which is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable organic pathology. Diagnosis must be made by exclusion, since organic pathology must first be ruled out. It can be classified as ovulatory or anovulatory, depending on whether ovulation is occurring or not.
Ovulatory DUB happens with the involvement of ovulation, and may represent a possible endocrine dysfunction, resulting in menorrhagia or metrorrhagia . Mid-cycle bleeding may indicate a transient estrogen decline, while late-cycle bleeding may indicate progesterone deficiency.
Anovulatory DUB happens without the involvement of ovulation. The etiology can be psychological stress, weight (obesity, anorexia, or a rapid change), exercise, endocrinopathy , neoplasm, drugs, or it may be otherwise idiopathic.
Assessment of anovulatory DUB should always start with a good medical history and physical examination. Laboratory assessment of hemoglobin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), pregnancy (by βhCG), and androgen profile should also happen. More extensive testing might include an ultrasound and endometrial sampling.
Management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding predominantly consists of reassurance, though mid-cycle estrogen and late-cycle progestin can be used for mid- and late-cycle bleeding respectively. Also, non-specific hormonal therapy such as combined estrogen and progestin can be given.
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