Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Duke University is a private university located in Durham, North Carolina in the United States. It is named for the Duke family, which made its money in the tobacco and energy businesses (see American Tobacco Company and Duke Power). Although it is a young university, founded in 1924 (it traces its roots back to 1838), Duke is recognized as one of the leading institutions of higher education in the United States.
Duke traces its origins to Union Institute in Randolph County, North Carolina. The legislature granted a rechartering of the academy as Normal College in 1851, and the privilege of granting degrees in 1853. To keep the school operating, the trustees agreed to provide free education for Methodist preachers in return for financial support by the church, and in 1859 the transformation was formalized with a name change to Trinity College.
In 1887, the Yale-educated John F. Crowell became president of Trinity College. Committed to the German university model which emphasized research over recitation, Crowell directed a major revision in the curriculum and convinced the trustees to move to a more urban location. In 1892, Trinity opened in Durham, largely because of the generosity of Washington Duke and Julian S. Carr, influential and respected Methodists who had grown prosperous through the tobacco industry.
John C. Kilgo became president in 1894 and he greatly increased the interest of the Duke family in Trinity. Washington Duke offered three gifts of $100,000 each for endowment, one of which was contingent upon the college admitting women "on equal footing with men." By World War I, Trinity College had developed into one of the leading liberal arts colleges in the South.
In December 1924, James B. Duke established The Duke Endowment, a forty million dollar trust fund, the annual income of which was to be distributed in the Carolinas among hospitals, orphanages, the Methodist Church, three colleges, and a university built around Trinity College. The president at the time, William P. Few, insisted that the university be named Duke University, and James B. Duke agreed on the condition that it be a memorial to his father and family.
The university grew up quickly. The School of Religion and Graduate School opened in 1926, the Medical School and hospital in 1930, the School of Nursing in 1931, and the School of Forestry in 1938. The Law School, founded in 1904, was reorganized in 1930, and engineering, which had been taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In 1930, the original Durham site became the coordinate Woman's College which was merged back into Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. In 1938 Duke University became the thirty-fourth member of the prestigious Association of American Universities. The Fuqua School of Business was founded in 1969.
Some consider Duke to be a friendlier, more energetic, warmer-weather alternative to the Ivy League. Admission to Duke is extremely competitive. It is consistently ranked by U.S. News & World Report in the top-10 doctoral universities among Princeton, Harvard, Yale, MIT, Stanford, UPenn, and Caltech.
Duke University also has several graduate and professional schools: the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences , the School of Medicine, the School of Nursing , the Fuqua School of Business , the School of Law , the Divinity School , and the Graduate School.
Duke University's Talent Identification Program, or TIP, is for seventh- through tenth-graders who have scored well on the SAT or ACT. Participants can take a varitey of summer classes while living on Duke University's East or West campus, or campuses at other participating schools. The TIP program also enables rising seniors to attend classes at Duke's "Pre-college" summer session.
Duke's undergraduate students are a very active social group. The nearby bars on Durham's Ninth Street are a popular outlet for students. However, the primary social scene at Duke occurs within the "Duke Bubble" in the form of a strong Greek life. About 1 in 3 males, and 1 out of 2 females, are members of a Greek organization. Although the on campus "Animal House-style keggers" have been ended by the administration, Greeks have found other, usually off-campus alternatives to provide students their necessary dose of "college life".
There are 400 student clubs and organizations. These include numerous student government, special interest, and service organization. The Chronicle is Duke's independent undergraduate daily newspaper.
Duke offers 36 arts and sciences majors in addition to 5 engineering majors, and 46 majors have been approved under Program II. Program II allows students to design their own interdisciplinary major. Sixteen certificate programs are also available. Students may pursue a combination of a total of three majors/minors/certificates, with at least one but not more than two majors (e.g. one major, two certificates; two majors, one minor; just a major; one major, one minor, and one certificate) .
Trinity College of Arts and Sciences operates under the recently revised Curriculum 2000. It ensures that students are exposed to a variety of "areas of knowledge" and "modes of inquiry." The curriculum aims to have students develop critical faculties and judgment; learn how to access, synthesize, and communicate knowledge effectively; acquire perspective on current and historical events; conduct research and solve problems; and develop tenacity and capacity for hard and sustained work.
Duke's Special academic facilities: art museum, language labs, Duke Forest, primate center, phytotron, electron laser, nuclear magnetic resonance machine, nuclear lab, marine lab, and center for engineering, medicine, and applied sciences. Duke also is a leading participant in the National Lambda Rail Network.
The school's sports teams are called the Blue Devils. They compete in the NCAA's Division I-A Atlantic Coast Conference. Duke's major historic rival, especially in basketball, has been the Tar Heels of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Duke Men's basketball is one of the most well known college athletics programs in the country. ESPN analyst Joe Lunardi has called the Blue Devils from the early 1980s to today a dynasty. The team's achievements under coach Mike Krzyzewski, include making the Final Four five years in a row from 1988 to 1992, winning the ACC Tournament an unprecedented five years in a row from 1999 to 2003, having six players named Naismith College Player of the Year in under 20 years, and becoming the only team to win three national championships since the NCAA Tournament field was expanded to 64 teams.
Former Duke stars such as Grant Hill, Christian Laettner, and Shane Battier have gone on to achieve further success in the NBA. Duke basketball has also provided the country with some of its top coaches including former Blue Devils Johnny Dawkins, Steve Wojciechowski, Tommy Amaker, Quin Snyder, Chris Collins and Jeff Capel.
Duke owns 212 buildings on 9,432 acres (38 km²) of land. That includes the Duke Forest and the Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Duke is sometimes called "the Gothic Wonderland," a nickname referring to the Gothic revival architecture of its main campus (West Campus). Much of the campus was designed by Julian Abele , one of the first African-American architects. The residential quadrangles are of an early and somewhat unadorned design, while the buildings in the academic quadrangles show influences of the more elaborate late French and Italian styles. Its freshman campus (East Campus) is composed of buildings in the Georgian architecture style.
The Duke Chapel stands at the heart of West Campus, and is at the center of religion at Duke. Constructed in 1930 through 1935, the Chapel seats about 1,600 people. With its 210-foot (64 m) tower, it is one of the tallest buildings in Durham County, North Carolina.
Famous and distinguished alumni
- Richard Nixon, 37th president of the United States (Law school)
- Elizabeth Dole, United States Senator, North Carolina; Secretary of Transportation' Commissioner, Federal Trade Commission; President of the American Red Cross
- Ricardo Lagos, president of Chile
- Kenneth Starr, former United States Solicitor General, former U.S. appeals court judge (Law school)
- Eleanor Smeal , political activist, president of the National Organization for Women
- Denise Majette, U.S. Politician, served as U.S. Representative (Law school)
- Christine M. Durham , chief justice of the Utah Supreme Court
- Bob Wise, Governor of West Virginia
- John Koskinen , former Deputy Director, Office of Management and Budget
- Henry Hyde, US representative, Illinois
- Evelyn Murphy , former Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
- Phiip Lader , former Ambassador to the Court of St. James, London
- Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary of Commerce
- Eric Shinseki, Former U.S. Army Chief of Staff (MA in English Literature)
- G. Richard Wagoner, Jr. , President & CEO, General Motors Corporation
- Edmund Pratt , former CEO of Pfizer, philanthropist
- John A. Allison IV , Chairman and CEO, BB&T Corporation
- Peter Nicholas, Founder and Chairman of Boston Scientific Corporation
- John Mack, CEO of Credit Suisse First Boston
- Clay Felker , Founding Editor of New York Magazine
- Rik Kirkland , S/B Managing Editor, Fortune Magazine
- Andrew Busey , creator of iChat
- James L. Vincent , Chairman & CEO, Biogen, Inc.
- Melinda Gates, Wife of Bill Gates, co-founder of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
- Rex Adams , chairman of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), former VP of Mobil Corporation
- W. David Stedman , Business executive, philanthropist
- Edwin L. Jones, Jr. , Engineer, president, J. A. Jones Construction Company
- Jeffrey Vinik , Chairman, President, and CEO of Vinik Asset Management
- Robert Richardson , Nobel Laureate in physics, 1996
- Fred Brooks, engineer, developer of OS/360, Turing Award winner
- Reynolds Price, renowned author and professor of literature
- Pamela Gann , president of Claremont McKenna College
- Dr. Paul Farmer , infectious disease doctor, subject of Pulitzer-prize winning Tracy Kidder's biography Mountains Beyond Mountains
- Jerry F. Hough , political scientist, author, and professor
- Joseph B Rhine , psychologist and parapsychologist, recognized as founder of modern studies of psychical phenomena
- Ian Barbour , physicist, theologian, and recipient of the Templeton Prize in 1999
- Benjamin Chavis , civil rights activist, executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
- Hans Dehmelt , Nobel Laureate in physics, 1989
- Fred Chappell, North Carolina Poet Laureate, novelist
- Josephine Humphreys , award-winning novelist
- Robert Morris, notable psychologist, Koestler professor at the University of Edinburgh
- Jerome Bruner, renowned psychologist and professor
- Lorenz Eitner , renowned art historian
- Sylvia Earle, marine biologist, Chief Scientist of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
- Willem J. Kolff , pioneer of artificial organs
- Stanley Hauerwas, theologian and author
- Anne Tyler, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist and writer of short stories
- Juanita M. Kreps, professor, economist, Secretary of Commerce
- Lenox D. Baker , physician, public servant
- Dorothy Simpson , scientist, mathematician
- William C. Styron, author, Pulitzer Prize winner
- Mary Duke Biddle Trent Semans , philanthropist
- Margaret Taylor Smith , author, social activist, Chair, Kresge Foundation
- Charles E. Brady, Jr., astronaut (Medical school)
- Annabeth Gish, actress, X-Files
- Michael Best , Former Principal Artist of the Metropolitan Opera
- René Echevarria , producer, The 4400, Dark Angel, Now and Then ; screenwriter, Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine
- Kelly Goldsmith , actress, Survivor
- Randall Wallace, Author of the screenplays for Braveheart, The Man in the Iron Mask, Pearl Harbor, and We Were Soldiers
- Lee McGeorge Durrell, author, television presenter, zookeeper
- Judy Woodruff, NBC's White House correspondent and Washington correspondent for the MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour, anchor at CNN
- John Feinstein , sports journalist
- Laura Paresky , television designer/animator
- Kevin Gray , ("Phantom" on Broadway after Michael Crawford)
- Martin Kratt, Creator and star of PBS's ZOBOOMAFOO
- Sean McManus , President of CBS Sports
- Charlie Rose, Journalist, former CBS News Anchor, 60 Minutes correspondent
- Charles Randolph-Wright , Director, writer, and producer
- Dan Abrams, the Abrams Report on MSNBC
- Tucker Max, Underground internet celebrity
- Tommy Amaker, University of Michigan head basketball coach
- Shane Battier , professional basketball player (jersey retired)
- Beth Bauer , professional golf player
- Alana Beard, professional basketball player (jersey retired)
- Jay Bilas , ESPN sports commentator
- Carlos Boozer, professional basketball player
- Elton Brand, professional basketball player
- Jeff Capel , Virginia Commonwealth University head basketball coach
- Jenny Chuasiriporn , professional golf player
- Johnny Dawkins, Duke University assistant basketball coach (jersey retired)
- Charles Driesell, college basketball coach
- Chris Duhon, professional basketball player
- Mike Dunleavy, Jr., professional basketball player
- Danny Ferry, former professional basketball player, member of 2003 National Champion San Antonio Spurs (jersey retired)
- Mike Gminski , ESPN sports commentator (jersey retired)
- Grant Hill, professional basketball player (jersey retired)
- Nancy Hogshead , Olympic gold medal winner in swimming
- Sonny Jurgensen, Hall of Fame quarterback who played for the Philadelphia Eagles and Washington Redskins
- Mike Krzyzewski, (Not Duke Alumnus) Head Coach, Duke Men's Basketball Team
- Christian Laettner, professional basketball player (jersey retired)
- Corey Maggette , professional basketball player
- Quinton McCracken , professional baseball player, member of 2002 World Series Champion Arizona Diamondbacks
- Scott Schoneweis ,Major League Baseball pitcher
- Quin Snyder, University of Missouri basketball coach
- Jim Spanarkel , basketball first round draft pick, commentator
- Drew Strojny ,NFL football offensive tackle
- Mike Trombley ,MLB pitcher
- Jason Williams , professional basketball player (jersey retired)
- 1838-1842: Brantley York , President
- 1842-1851: Braxton Craven, President
- 1851-1859: Braxton Craven, President
- 1859-1863: Braxton Craven, President
- 1863-1865: William Trigg Gannaway , President Pro Tempore
- 1866-1882: Braxton Craven, President
- 1883-1884: Marquis Lafayette Wood , President
- 1887-1894: John Franklin Crowell , President
- 1894-1910: John Carlisle Kilgo , President
- 1910-1924: William Preston Few , President
- 1924-1940: William Preston Few , President
- 1941-1948: Robert Lee Flowers , President
- 1949-1960: Arthur Hollis Edens , President
- 1960-1963: Julian Deryl Hart , President
- 1963-1969: Douglas Maitland Knight, President
- 1969-1985: Terry Sanford, President
- 1985-1993: H. Keith H. Brodie , President
- 1993-2004: Nannerl O. Keohane, President
- 2004-Present: Richard H. Brodhead, President
- Duke University
- Duke University Medical Center
- Duke University School of Medicine
- Duke University School of Law
- The Fuqua School of Business
- Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences
- Duke Divinity School
- Trinity College of Arts and Sciences
- Pratt School of Engineering
- Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University
- Duke University Primate Center
- The Chronicle (Student Newspaper)
- Duke Magazine (Alumni Magazine)
- Duke iPod First Year Experience Website
- Undergraduate Admissions
- Duke Athletics
- Julian Abele
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