Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The fundamental item of diving equipment used by divers is the SCUBA equipment, such as the Aqualung or Rebreather. There are other important pieces of equipment that make diving safer, more convenient or more efficient.
1.1 Scuba life support
Personal Diving Equipment
Scuba life support
- Scuba set consisting of diving cylinder(s) and diving regulator(s)
- Rebreather an alternative to a scuba set
Alternative life support
- Liquid breathing system - In the real world this is at the early experiment stage. It may allow very deep diving when it is developed.
- Snorkel allows breathing at the surface with the face submerged.
- Standard diving dress - mostly used in professional diving. Merely of historical interest now.
- Surface supplied diving - mostly used in professional diving.
Thermal, sting and abrasion protection
- In cold water, a Diving Suit such as a dry suit or a wet suit
- In very warm water, many types of tough, long, everyday clothing provide protection
- Diving gloves
- Diving boots
In-water stabilisation and movement
- Buoyancy compensator, Buoyancy Control Device, BCD or BC
- Diving weighting system counteracts the buoyancy of the diving suit
- Diver Propulsion Vehicle - to increase the range of the diver undwerwater
- Decompression trapeze consists of one or more horizontal bars, suspended at the depth of intended decompression stops by buoys
Measurement and navigation
- Dive Computer to avoid decompression sickness
- Compass for underwater navigation
- Depth gauge is used with watch for decompression monitoring on decompression tables
- Watch is used with depth gauge for decompression monitoring on decompression tables
- Decompression tables to avoid decompression sickness
- Distance line is used to navigate back to the start point in poor vizibility
- Diving shot consisting of a weight, line and buoy used to mark the location of a dive site, allowing divers to navigate to and from the surface and to do decompression stops at a safe location. Typically the weight is 20 kg.
Vision and communication
- Mask allows the diver to see clearly underwater and protects the eyes.
- Full face mask allows talking if no mouthpiece inside. Difficult or impossible to go to snorkel on running out of air.
- Diving helmet used with surface supplied diving, it protects the head well.
- Surface Marker Buoy or Decompression buoy (Delayed SMBs)
- Underwater writing slate and pencil to transport pre-dive plans underwater, to record facts whilst underwater and to aid communication with other divers
- Torch/flashlight is essential in low visibility, during night diving or for communication
- Knife to cut ropes and nets
- Diving reel is used to transport a distance line or line for a surface marker buoy
- Lifting bag - a robust airtight bag used to lift heavy object underwater
- Dry box to keep objects in that the diver needs to keep dry at depth
- Airlift - a gas "powered" tube that sucks small objects, sand and mud from the sea bed that is used in nautical archaeology
- Camera and housing - for underwater photography or video shooting
Surface detection aids
The purposes of this class of equipment are to:
- allow the boat cover to monitor and find divers on the surface during or after a dive
- prevent the diver being run over by boat traffic on the ascent
- mark the diver's position when drift diving or while at the decompression stop
- help rescue boats and helicopters to locate the diver
Surface detection aids (with cheapest and most effective towards the top) include:
- Red or yellow collapsible flag - high visibility, robust, bungeed to cylinder
- Whistle - cheap, will only be heard by people far from engine noise
- Torch/flashlight - if at sea after night fall
- Strobe - needs long lasting batteries
- High pressure whistle - expensive but they are effective
- Orange water dye - increases diver's visibility from search helicopters
- Mirror - to reflect sunlight or searchlights (A used Compact Disc is a good substitute)
- Red pyrotechnic flares - for helicopters and lifeboats
- EPIRB (Electronic Position Indicating Radio Beacon)
- Diving air compressor - a gas compressor, which can fill diving cylinders with high pressure air.
- Boats such as the rigid-hulled inflatable boat
- Echo sounder - a SONAR depth measuring and profiling device used for dive site location
- GPS receiver - for locating dive sites
- Proton magnetometer - for locating ferrous wrecks
- Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle - for locating dive sites
- Marine VHF radio - for communicating with rescue services and other boats
External links: Equipment manufacturers
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