Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|City nickname: "Charm City"|
Location in the state of Maryland
|Mayor||Martin O'Malley (Dem)|
1,214.4 km² (468.9 mi²)
428.8 km² (165.6 mi²) 35.31%
- City (2000)
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5|
Baltimore is an independent city located in the U.S. state of Maryland. As of July 1, 2002, the population is 638,614, and the population of the Baltimore-Washington Metroplex as of 2000 is 7.6 million, up from 6.7 million in 1990.. It is the largest city in Maryland, named after the founding proprietor of the Maryland Colony, Cęcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. The city is a major part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area and a major U.S.seaport.
Because there is also a Baltimore County adjacent to (but not including) the city, it is sometimes referred to as Baltimore City when a clear distinction is desired.
During the 17th century, various towns called "Baltimore" were founded as commercial ports at various locations on the upper Chesapeake Bay. The present city dates from July 30, 1729 and is named after Cęcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore who was the first Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore grew swiftly in the mid-late 18th century as the granary for sugar producing colonies in the Caribbean. The profit from sugar encouraged the maximum possible cultivation of cane and the importation of food. The relatively shorter distance between Baltimore and the Caribbean colonies allowed swift transport and minimized the spoilage of flour.
Baltimore's harbor is the location of Fort McHenry, which came under attack by British forces in the War of 1812 and whose defense inspired Francis Scott Key to write the poem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," which furnishes the lyrics to the United States national anthem. The city is also the site of the first architectural monument honoring George Washington, a 178 foot doric column erected in 1829 and designed by Robert Mills, who later designed the Washington Monument in Washington D.C.
During the Civil War, Maryland was officially part of the Union but kept slavery legal. Many, if not most, people in Baltimore at the time were sympathetic to the Confederacy. Pro-Southern sentiment led to the Baltimore riot of 1861 when Union soldiers marched through the city. After the riot, Union troops occupied Baltimore and Maryland came under direct federal administration — in part, to prevent the state from seceding — until the end of the war in April 1865.
Baltimore is the location of the Baltimore World Trade Center, the world's tallest equilateral five-sided building (the five-sided JPMorganChase Tower in Houston, Texas is taller, but has unequal sides).
Baltimore has become a prime city for filming movies. Many scenes from the 1972 cult classic film Pink Flamingos were shot in the city's Waverly section (the film was made by John Waters, a Baltimore native).
In recent years, efforts to redevelop the downtown area have led to a revitalization of the Inner Harbor. In 1979 the Baltimore Convention Center was opened and was subsequently renovated and expanded in 1996. Harborplace, a modern urban retail and restaurant complex, was opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland's largest tourist destination, in 1981. In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles of Major League Baseball moved downtown to Oriole Park at Camden Yards, and six years later the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League moved next door into the newly renamed M&T Bank Stadium, formerly known as PSINet Stadium until PSINet went bankrupt.
On October 2, 1996, Baltimore became the first city in the United States to adopt 311 as a non-emergency "hot line" telephone number, in order to reserve the use of 911 for genuine emergencies. The concept has been highly successful, and numerous other American municipalities have since implemented the practice.
A 60-car train derailment occurred in a tunnel in Baltimore on July 18, 2001. The derailment sparked a chemical fire that raged for six days and virtually shut down the downtown area until the heat caused a water main to rupture, largely extinguishing the fire but also causing significant flooding in the streets above. Three weeks later, manhole covers flew into the air as underground explosions along West Pratt Street followed due to residual explosive chemicals from the fire left in the sewers.
In 2003, the Baltimore Development Corporation announced that three hotel projects were being reviewed. The hotel is expected to be built near the Baltimore Convention Center. The City of Baltimore hopes to have it finished and opened by 2005 or 2006.
Also in 2003, Baltimore was affected by Hurricane Isabel from flooding as a result of tidal surge , affecting primarily the Fells Point community and the Inner Harbor and surrounding low areas. Many places were flooded including the sports center ESPN Zone the Baltimore World Trade Center (The World Trade Center remained closed for approximately a month during cleanup efforts) and most of the Inner Harbor. Water levels rose some 20 feet in areas, flooding underground parking garages and displacing thousands of cubic yards of trash and debris.
Law and government
The current Mayor of Baltimore is Martin O'Malley. Despite being a conservative Democrat in a city with a deep progressive history, O'Malley has maintained a high approval rating through both of his terms in office. His ambition to run for Governor of Maryland is well known. For a full list of mayors that served the city, see: List of Baltimore Mayors
Baltimore City Council
Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the City Council in November of 2002, against the will of the Mayor, the Council President, and the majority of the Council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by ACORN, backed the effort.
The Baltimore City Council is now made up of 14 single member districts and one elected at-large Council President. Sheila Dixon is the current Council President. On November 2, 2004, Dixon won re-election in a two-way contest; Joan Floyd, a Green Party candidate, was the only challenger; the Republicans did not field a candidate.
Baltimore is in the north central part of the state of Maryland, on the Patapsco River, not far from the Chesapeake Bay. It is on the western edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with low hills rising in the western part of the city.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 238.5 km² (92.1 mi²). 209.3 km² (80.8 mi²) of it is land and 29.2 km² (11.3 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 12.240% water.
The climate is humid subtropical , moderated by the warming influence of the bay and nearby ocean, with hot summers, cool winters, and moderate precipitation.
Public transit in Baltimore City is provided by the Maryland Transit Administration. Baltimore City has many bus routes, and a light rail and a subway system. Additionally, MARC commuter rail connects Washington, DC's Union Station with the city's two rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station. The major highways serving the city are I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), I-95, I-83 and I-70 (its eastern terminus is just beyond the city limits).
- Baltimore-Washington International Airport - Located in neighboring Anne Arundel County
- Martin State Airport - (general aviation)
In the 1830, 1840, and 1850 censuses of the United States of America, Baltimore was the second largest city in population. It was among the top 10 cities in population in the U. S. in every census up to the 1980 census.
As of the census of 2000, there are 651,154 people, 257,996 households, and 147,057 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,111.5/km² (8,058.4/mi²). There are 300,477 housing units at an average density of 1,435.8/km² (3,718.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 31.63% White, 64.34% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.53% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, and 1.47% from two or more races. 1.70% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 257,996 households out of which 25.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.7% are married couples living together, 25.0% have a female householder with no husband present, and 43.0% are non-families. 34.9% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.42 and the average family size is 3.16.
In the city the population is spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 35 years. For every 100 females there are 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 82.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $30,078, and the median income for a family is $35,438. Males have a median income of $31,767 versus $26,832 for females. The per capita income for the city is $16,978. 22.9% of the population and 18.8% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 30.6% of those under the age of 18 and 18.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Colleges and universities
- Baltimore Hebrew University
- Baltimore International College (BIC)
- College of Notre Dame of Maryland
- Johns Hopkins University (JHU)
- Loyola College in Maryland
- Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA)
- Peabody Institute
- Sojourner-Douglass College
- Baltimore City Community College (BCCC)
- Coppin State University
- Morgan State University
- University of Baltimore (UB)
- University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB)
Baltimore is a sister city of these municipalities:
- Gbarnga, Liberia
- Genoa, Italy
- Kawasaki, Japan
- Luxor, Egypt
- Alexandria, Egypt
- Odessa, Ukraine
- Pireaus, Greece
- Xiamen, China
- Ashkelon, Israel
Museums and Attractions
- American Visionary Art Museum
- Babe Ruth Birthplace and Museum
- Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption
- Baltimore Museum of Art
- Baltimore Museum of Industry
- Baltimore Maritime Museum
- Blacks In Wax Museum
- B&O Railroad Museum
- Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum
- Fort McHenry National Monument
- Lacrosse Foundation Hall of Fame Museum
- Maryland Science Center
- National Aquarium in Baltimore
- National Museum of Dentistry
- Pimlico Race Course
- Star Spangled Banner Flag House and 1812 Museum
- USS Constellation
- Walters Art Museum
- Westminster Hall and Burying Ground
- Baltimore Orioles (Major League Baseball)
- Baltimore Ravens (National Football League)
- Baltimore Bayhawks (Major League Lacrosse)
- Baltimore Blast - (Major Indoor Soccer League)
- 2005-2006 ABA Expansion Team
Defunct (or moved) Sports Teams
- Baltimore Stallions - (Canadian Football League )
- Baltimore Stars - (United States Football League)
- Baltimore Colts - (National Football League)
- Baltimore Bullets - (National Basketball Association)
- Baltimore Claws - (American Basketball Association)
- Baltimore Bayrunners - (International Basketball League)
- Baltimore Bays - (North American Soccer League)
- Baltimore Blades - (World Hockey Association )
- Baltimore Bandits - (American Hockey League)
- Baltimore Clippers - (American Hockey League)
- Baltimore Skipjacks - (American Hockey League, Eastern Hockey League, Southern Hockey League )
- Carmelo Anthony
- Eubie Blake
- Tyrone "Muggsy" Bogues
- Charles Joseph Bonaparte
- David Byrne
- Cab Calloway
- Ben Carson
- Charles R. Drew
- Johnny Gill
- Philip Glass
- Dorothy Hamill
- David Hasselhoff
- Billie Holiday
- Johns Hopkins
- Francis Scott Key
- Barry Levinson
- Thurgood Marshall
- Jim McKay
- H.L. Mencken
- Kweisi Mfume
- Mo'Nique Imes-Jackson
- Ric Ocasek
- Jim Palmer
- Nancy Pelosi
- Michael Phelps
- Jada Pinkett-Smith
- Edgar Allan Poe
- Adrienne Rich
- Cal Ripken, Jr.
- Babe Ruth
- Pam Shriver
- Tupac Shakur
- Anne Truitt
- Anne Tyler
- Johnny Unitas
- John Waters
- Frank Zappa
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