Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew, Duke of York, (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor, formerly Windsor), styled HRH The Duke of York (born February 19, 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. The Duke of York is currently 4th in the line of succession.
The Duke of York is most famous for his high profile marriage to and subsequent divorce from Sarah Ferguson. He also served in the Royal Navy, seeing action in the Falklands War aboard HMS Invincible. He currently serves as United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment.
Andrew was born on February 19, 1960 at Buckingham Palace, London. His mother is the current reigning British monarch, HM Queen Elizabeth II, the eldest daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. His father is HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the eldest son of HRH Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and HSH Princess Alice of Battenberg.
Andrew was the first child born to a reigning monarch since Queen Victoria's youngest child, HRH The Princess Beatrice, in 1857. As a child of the reigning monarch, he was styled His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew from birth.
The Prince Andrew received his early education at home, before attending Heatherdown Preparatory School, near Ascot, Berkshire. In September 1973, he followed his father, The Duke of Edinburgh, and his elder brother, HRH Prince of Wales, to Gordonstoun, in Morayshire, Scotland. From January to June 1977, Prince Andrew went on an exchange programme to Lakefield College School, Ontario, Canada. He left Gordonstoun in July 1979 with A-levels in English, history and economics, and political science. Unlike his brothers, Prince Andrew did not attend university.
Royal Navy (1979-1982)
The Prince Andrew joined the Royal Navy in 1979 on a short service commission, as a Seaman Officer and specialised as a pilot. He entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, and also undertook the Royal Marine 'Green Beret' course. After passing out of Dartmouth, Prince Andrew went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, Yorkshire, and later basic flying training with the Royal Navy at Royal Naval Air Station (RNAS) Culdrose, Cornwall, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter.
Prince Andrew later converted onto the Sea King helicopter and conducting operational flying training. In 1982, he joined his first front-line unit 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible.
Falklands War (1982)
In April 2, 1982, the British colony of the Falkland Islands was invaded by Argentina, an event that led to the Falklands War. Prince Andrew's ship, HMS Invincible was only one of two operational aircraft carriers available to the Royal Navy, and as such was a to play a major role in the Royal Navy taskforce being assembled to sail south to retake the islands.
At first the British government were apprehensive of allowing Prince Andrew to remain on Invincible, and wished to move him to a desk job. The prospect of the son of the Queen being killed in action was a possibility, and the government wished to avoid such a circumstance. However, the Queen insisted that Prince Andrew remain with his ship, and so he joined the Invincible as it sailed south, as a Sea King helicopter pilot.
Throughout the conflict Prince Andrew flew on various missions, including Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti-Surface Warfare search (ASUW). He also helped in casualty evacuation, transport and Search and Air Rescue (SAR). When the conflict ended, and Invincible returned to Portsmouth, the Queen and Prince Philip joined other families of the other crew to welcome the vessel home.
Officer and Diplomat (1982-2001)
On July 23, 1986 Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson, the second daughter of the late Major Ronald Ferguson and his former wife, the late Mrs. Hector Barrantes, at Westminster Abbey. On the occasion of his wedding, the Queen created him Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh titles previously held by both his maternal great grandfather, King George V, and his maternal grandfather, King George VI.
Together the Duke and Duchess of York have two children:
- Her Royal Highness Princess Beatrice of York (born August 8, 1988)
- Her Royal Highness Princess Eugenie of York (born March 23, 1990).
Scandal and Divorce
The Duke and Duchess of York appeared to have a happy marriage and presented a united front during the late 1980s. The Duchess of York was seen as boisterous and a breath of fresh air to the stuffy royal protocol that surrounded the Royal Family. However, underneath there were problems in the marriage, mainly relating to the fact that the Duke of York was away on Navy business at regular times during the year.
In 1992, pictures of the Duchess appeared in the British tabloid press, showing her in compromising positions with her financial advisor, the American, John Bryan . This effectively ended any hopes of reconciliation of the couple and they announced their intention to separate on March 19, 1992.
The Duke and Duchess of York divorced in May 1996. Custody of the two princesses was to be shared between the Duke and Duchess. The Duchess of York was stripped of her Her Royal Highness style and became known as Sarah, Duchess of York. She continues to live in the Duke's home of Sunninghill Park , and retains friendly relations.
The Duke of York was widely seen as the injured party in the divorce. His performance as a husband and family man had impressed the general public, and he is currently one of the more popular members of the British Royal Family.
Prince Andrew has been romantically linked with women since his divorce. This follows from his reputation in his late teens and early twenties, when he earned a reputation as a playboy. His relationships with "unsuitable" women, particularly the actress/model, Koo Stark, attracted unwanted media attention and gained him the nickname "Randy Andy".
Currently the Duke of York works for the Department of Trade and Industry as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment. He took over from HRH Prince Edward, Duke of Kent in this role. The role involves the Duke representing the UK at various trade fairs and conferences all over the world.
The Duke is also a keen golfer and is Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. This is not without controversy and the Duke has been criticised for using the Queen's Flight for transport to various golfing functions.
The Duke currently lives at Sunninghill Park, next to the Great Park, Windsor. In 2002, Buckingham Palace announced the Duke of York would move his official residence to Royal Lodge , Windsor, the former country home of his grandmother, Her Late Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother. The Duke of York maintains an office at Buckingham Palace.
Titles and Honours
Titles from birth
- His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew (1960-1986)
- His Royal Highness The Duke of York (1986- )
- Earl of Inverness (1986- )
- Baron Killyleagh (1986- )
As second son of the Sovereign, Prince Andrew is also automatically entitled to the Scottish peerages of Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmanach ; however, these titles have not been taken up.
- 1981-83: Pilot, 820 NAS on HMS Invincible (including activity in the Falklands War)
- 1983-84: Conversion to Lynx at RNAS Culdrose
- 1984-86: Promoted to Lieutenant; pilot, 815 NAS on HMS Brazen
- 1987-89: Helicopter Warfare Instructor, 702 NAS at RNAS Culdrose
- 1989-91: Flight commander, 829 NAS on HMS Campbeltown
- 1992-93: Army Command and Staff Course; promoted to Lieutenant Commander
- 1993-94: Captain, HMS Cottesmore
- 1994-96: Senior Pilot, 815 NAS at RNAS Portland
- 1997-99: Directorate of Naval Operations, MOD
- 1999-2001: Promoted to Commander; appointed to Diplomacy Section of the Naval Staff
He is Colonel-in-Chief of the following regiments:
- 9th/12th Royal Lancers (Prince of Wales's) - United Kingdom
- The Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) - Canada
- The Royal Irish Regiment - United Kingdom
- The Royal Highland Fusiliers - United Kingdom
- The Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
- The Royal New Zealand Army Logistic Regiment
- Small Arms School Corps - United Kingdom
- The Staffordshire Regiment - United Kingdom
He was also Colonel-in-Chief of this now disbanded regiment:
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