Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Birth of Christ. For some, the discovery of agriculture, roughly 6,000 BC is the beginning of ancient history. The most common date for an end of ancient history in Europe is AD 476 (the fall of the Western Roman Empire), however the exact date is still disputed among various historians. In Europe ancient history was followed by Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. Genetic evidence, however, points to the first appearance of human beings about 150,000 years ago. There is also a growing body of evidence that Homo sapiens first left Africa about 60,000 years ago.
Beginning of ancient history
- 10,000 BC - invention of agriculture is the earliest given date for the beginning of Ancient Era
- 3,300 - oldest historical documents
- 3300 - Bronze Age begins in the Near East, slowly spreads to the rest of Eurasia
- 2000 - Domestication of the horse
- 356 - Birth of Alexander the Great
- 322 - Death of Alexander the Great
- 149-146 - Third and final Punic War
- 100 - Julius Caesar is born.
- 49 - Civil War between Caesar and Pompey the Great.
- AD 313 - Edict of Milan declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship
- 378- Battle of Adrianople, Roman army is defeated by the Germanic tribes
- 395- Roman Emperor Theodosius I outlaws all pagan religions in favor of Christianity
- 410- Alaric sacks Rome for the first time since 390 BC
- 476- Prompted by the barbarian General Odacer, the last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustulus abdicates, formally ending the Western Roman Empire.
End of ancient history in Europe
The exact date era of ancient history ends is still disputed among historians. Most common dates are:
- 293 - reforms of Roman Emperor Diocletian, the earliest given date for the end of Ancient Era
- 395 - the division of Roman Empire into the Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire
- 476 - the fall of Western Roman Empire. This date is most commonly used to denote the end of Ancient Era
- 529 - closure of Platon Academy in Athens by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I
- 622 - Muhammad escapes from Mecca
- 962 - coronation of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, the latest given date for the end of Ancient Era
The most prominent civilisations of the Ancient Era:
- Ancient China
- Ancient Persia
- Ancient Egypt
- Ancient Greece
- Ancient Rome
- Ancient India
- African Ancient Kingdoms: Axumite Kingdom, Kush, etc.
- Byzantines (Early Eastern Roman Empire, until 476 BC)
- Hellenic civilization (Greeks)
- Indus Valley civilization, unified from 2600 BC - 1900 BC.
- History of ancient Israel and Judah
- Kingdom of Israel
- Kingdom of Judah
- Native American
- Roman Empire
- Urartu -- Kingdom from 860 BC to 585 BC
- Ancient music and Timeline of trends in music to 1899
- Ancient philosophy
- Ancient warfare
- Classical Antiquity
- Human evolution
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