Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Albanian or Gjuha shqipe is a language spoken by more than six million inhabitants of the western Balkan peninsula (Albania, Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece) in south-eastern Europe (Albanians) and by a small number of people in Calabria, southern Italy.
The oldest known Albanian printed book, Meshari  or missal, was written by Gjon Buzuku, a Catholic cleric, in 1555. The first Albanian school is believed to have been opened by Franciscans in 1638 in Pdhanë .
Albanian was proved to be an Indo-European language in the 1850s. The Albanian language is on its own branch of the Indo-European language family. Some suggest that Albanian may be the survival of an Illyrian language once spoken in the southwestern Balkans. Others suggest Albanian may be related more to the ancient Dacian language once spoken in Moesia and Dacia. It is unclear whether Dacian and Illyrian were on different branches of the Indo-European family, but most scholars consider that they were.
Albanian is divided into four dialects, grouped into two dialect groups as follows:
- Gheg Albanian
- Tosk group
- Arbëreshë Albanian
- Arvanatika Albanian
- Tosk Albanian
Some eminent scholars in the field of Albanian language have been Johann Georg von Hahn , Franz Bopp, Gustav Meyer , Norbert Jokl, Eqrem Çabej , Stuart Edward Mann , Carlo Tagliavini , Wacław Cimochowski , Eric Pratt Hamp , Agnija Desnickaja and Gjovalin Shkurtaj who is probably the most distinguished socio-linguist in Albania today. He is the head of the Department of Linguistics at Tirana University.
There are two principal dialects of limited mutual intelligibility: Tosk and Gheg. The geographical border of the two dialects has traditionally been the Shkumbini River in Albania, with Gheg being spoken north of the river, and Tosk south of the river. The two dialects have phonological as well as lexicological differences.
Tosk is spoken in southern and central Albania, by the Arbëreshë of Italy, among the Albanian minority of Greece: the Çam and the Arvanites, and in small communities of Albanian immigrants in Ukraine, Turkey, Egypt, and United States.
Gheg (or Geg) is spoken in northern Albania and by the Albanians of Serbia and Montenegro (Southern Montenegro and Southern Serbia), the UN protectorate of Kosovo, as well as those of the Republic of Macedonia.
Since after World War II there have been efforts to standardize on one dialect called Standard or Literary Albanian that borrows most heavily from the Tosk dialect (at the behest of the Dictator Enver Hoxha, himself a Tosk speaker). Two books that were published in the 1970s, Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe and Fjalori drejtshkrimor i gjuhës shqipe, contained prescribed orthographical rules and dictionary definitions respectively.
|letter||IPA - example||letter||IPA - example|
|a||- Spanish la||n||n - gun|
|b||b - burn||nj||ɲ - Spanish niña|
|c||ts - hats||o||ɔ - four|
|ç||tʃ - church||p||p - opera|
|d||d - dance||q||c - Close to hit you|
|dh||ð - this||r||ɾ - Spanish pero|
|e||ɛ - let||rr||r - Spanish perro|
|ë||ə - allowed (ë is a schwa)||s||s - save|
|f||f - fight||sh||ʃ - shun|
|g||g - gun||t||t - tell|
|gj||J - Close to did you||th||θ - thought|
|h||h - hope||u||u - doom|
|i||i - eat||v||v - victory|
|j||j - year||x||dz - adze|
|k||k - king||xh||dʒ - jungle|
|l||l - lee||y||y - French du jour|
|ll||lˠ - tell||z||z - zone|
|m||m - mother||zh||ʒ - vision|
Note: all sounds in words used for comparison are those of the English language unless otherwise noted.
Albanians transliterate foreign words in their own way, even from the Latin alphabet; thus Josh McDowell is transliterated Xhosh Mekdauëll. Each sound is approximated by one or more of the 36 letters of the alphabet, therefore words are spelled as they sound.
The Albanian alphabet has seven vowels: A, E, Ë, I, O, U, Y.
There are also 29 consonants: B, C, Ç, D, Dh, F, G, Gj, H, J, K, L, Ll, M, N, Nj, P, Q, R, Rr, S, Sh, T, Th, V, X, Xh, Z, Zh.
Albanian split from the Proto-Indo-European language about 4000 years ago and most of the basic words are derived directly from it. Some of these words have cognates in Romanian and there is a theory that the language spoken by the Dacians before the Romanization was a language related to proto-Albanian.
It is not certain whether ancient Greek influenced the early Albanian language. With the expansion of the Roman Empire, Latin, more specifically, the Balkan Latin (which was the ancestor of Romanian), would exert a great influence on Albanian. Examples of words borrowed from Latin: qytet < civitas (city), qiell < caelum (sky), mik < amicus (friend).
After the Slavs arrived in the Balkans, another source of Albanian vocabulary were the Slavic languages, especially Bulgarian. Like for all Balkan languages, the rise of the Ottoman Empire meant an influx of Turkish words.
The Albanian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, with the addition of the letters ë, ç, and nine digraphs to account for certain sounds in pronunciations. Until 1908, when the Latin alphabet was introduced in Albanian, the Greek alphabet, Cyrillic alphabet, and the Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic alphabet had been used to write Albanian.
|hello||tungjatjeta||/tun gʲat jɛ ta/||(tUhn-ngIAt-IEta)||Albanian tungjatjeta.ogg|
|good-bye||mirupafshim||/mi ru paf ʃim/||(mEEr-Uh-pA-fshEEm)||Albanian mirupafshim.ogg|
|please||ju lutem||/ju lu tɛm/||(iU LU-tehm)||Albanian ju lutem.ogg|
|thank you||faleminderit||/fa ɫɛ min dɛ rit/||(fAh-leh-mEE-nde-rEEt)||Albanian faleminderit.ogg|
|that one||atë||/a tə/||(ATEH)||Albanian atë.ogg|
|how much?||sa është?||/sa əʃ tə/||(sAh ush-te)||Albanian sa është.ogg|
|English||anglisht||/an gliʃt/||(ahn-GLEE-sht)||Albanian anglisht.ogg|
|sorry||më fal||/mə fal/||(mUh FAL)||Albanian më fal.ogg|
|I don't understand||nuk kuptoj||/nuk kup toj/||(nUhk KUP-toi)||Albanian nuk kuptoj.ogg|
|where's the bathroom?||ku është banjoja?||/ku əʃ tə ba ɲo ja/||(kuh ush-tEh bA-nio-jA)||Albanian ku është banjoja.ogg|
|generic toast||gëzuar||/gə zu ar/||(gUh-zuh-ar)||Albanian gëzuar.ogg|
|Do you speak English?||flisni Anglisht?||/flis ni an gliʃt/||(flee-snEE ahn-GLEE-sht)||Albanian flisni anglisht.ogg|
- Albanian proverbs
- Common phrases
- Language families and languages
- Numbers in various languages
- A somewhat interesting propaganda site
- English - Albanian Dictionary
- Albanian - English Dictionary: from Webster's Online Dictionary - the Rosetta Edition.
- An overview of the Albanian language
- Albanian phrase guide
- Ethnologue.com article on Albanian
- List of free online resources for learners
- List of online Albanian-related resources
- Albanian World Learn Albanian here
Sample of 3 different type of Albanian Language:
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